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Language Development for English Language Learners. Mabel O. Rivera Ani C. Moughamian David J. Francis.

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language development for english language learners

Language Development for English Language Learners

Mabel O. Rivera

Ani C. Moughamian

David J. Francis

slide2

The Center on Instruction is operated by RMC Research Corporation in partnership with the Florida Center for Reading Research at Florida State University; Instructional Research Group; the Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistics at the University of Houston; and The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk at The University of Texas at Austin.The contents of this PowerPoint were developed under cooperative agreement S283B050034 withthe U.S. Department of Education. However, these contents do not necessarilyrepresent the policy of the Department of Education, and you should notassume endorsement by the Federal Government.2009 The Center on Instruction requests that no changes be made to the content or appearance of this product.To download a copy of this document, visit www.centeroninstruction.org

download a copy of this document at www centeroninstruction org

Download a copy of this document at www.centeroninstruction.org

language development for english language learners1
Language Development for English Language Learners

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

  • DEMOGRAPHICS
  • LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
  • ASSESSMENT
  • VOCABULARY
  • ACADEMIC LANGUAGE
frequently used terms
Frequently Used Terms

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Language Minority Student (LM)

Limited English Proficient (LEP)/English Language Learner (ELL)

who are english language learners ells
Who AreEnglish Language Learners (ELLs)?

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

National-origin minority students with limited English proficiency

Membership is expected to be temporary

demographics
DEMOGRAPHICS

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

ells form a large growing population
ELLs Form a Large, Growing Population

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

ells and general school populations
ELLs and General School Populations

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

fastest growing ell populations
Fastest Growing ELL Populations

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

  • Students who immigrated before kindergarten
  • U.S.-born children of immigrants (native-born)
    • 76% of ELLs in grades K-8
    • 56% of ELLs in grades 9-12

(Batalova, Fix, and Murray, 2007)

By 2015, second generation children of immigrants are expected to be 30% of the school-aged population.

numbers of ell students
Numbers of ELL Students

(U.S. Department of Education, NCELA, 2007)

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

density of ell populations
Density of ELL Populations

(U.S. Department of Education, NCELA, 2007)

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

growth of ell populations
Growth of ELL Populations

(U.S. Department of Education, NCELA, 2007)

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

the most common languages of english language learners
The Most Common Languages ofEnglish Language Learners

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

differences among ells
Differences Among ELLs

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Native language(s)

Level of native language/literacy skills

Level of English language/literacy skills

Length of time family has lived in US

Previous schooling experience

Familiarity with school routines

Content-area knowledge

Parental education

at school entry
At School Entry

Identification

Home survey

Language proficiency tests

Other input (e.g., teachers)

Monitoring

Language – Title III

Achievement – Title I

Language Minority Learners

ELLs

(or LEP)

IFEP

Language Prof. Tests

Slide courtesy of N. Lesaux and M. Kieffer, Harvard Graduate School of Education

IFEP = Initially Fluent English Proficient

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

over time
Over Time

Language Minority Learners

RFEP

Language Prof. Tests

ELLs

(or LEP)

IFEP

Slide courtesy of N. Lesaux and M. Kieffer, Harvard Graduate School of Education

RFEP = Reclassified Fluent English Proficient

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

unique learning challenges
Unique Learning Challenges

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Develop content knowledge and skills defined by state standards while simultaneously acquiringa second (or third)language;

Demonstrate their learning on an assessment in English.

performance outcomes
Performance Outcomes

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

  • Some states look at academic performance on state tests after ELLs are reclassified as fluent English proficient.
  • Although some reclassified ELLs do well, many still struggle with:
    • listening, speaking, reading, and writing that involves academic language
    • access to content-area knowledge
language development
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

what is language
What is Language?

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

A written or oral system of communication that uses symbols and has rules for their use.

The gateway for learning

A primary way we communicate

language components
Language Components

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

  • Phonology - the patterns of basic speech units and the accepted rules of pronunciation
  • Morphology - the study of the smallest meaningful units of speech (morphemes)
  • Syntax - how individual words and basic meaningful units are combined to create sentences
  • Semantics - the ways in which a language conveys meaning
  • Pragmatics - the contextually appropriate use of language
language development milestones
Language Development Milestones

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Milestones are a guide to normal development.

Language development is cumulative: we master simple skills before more complex ones.

first language acquisition theories
First Language Acquisition Theories

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Nativist: Children are born with specific abilities that facilitate language learning.

Interactionist: Children’s general cognitive abilities enable them to learnlanguage through interactions with their environment and other people.

nativist linguistic theorists
Nativist Linguistic Theorists

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Noam Chomsky – Universal Grammar

Eric Lenneberg – Critical Period for language acquisition

Kenji Hakuta – L1 skills facilitate L2 acquisition

Robert DeKeyser – The role of language aptitude in adults

interactionist linguist theorists
Interactionist Linguist Theorists

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

  • Catherine Snow; Elizabeth Bates; Michael Tomasello
    • Language learning results from general cognitive abilities and the interactions between the learner and his/her environment
slide27

Note

Some languages are easier to learn than others, depending on the complexity of their symbol system and their degree of transferability.

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

the alphabetic principle
The Alphabetic Principle

The idea that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken language

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

orthographies the symbols and the rules for writing them spelling may be
Orthographies – the symbols and the rules for writing them (spelling) – may be:

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

  • Transparent (e.g., Spanish) and allow a few or just one association between symbols and sounds.
  • Opaque(e.g., English) and allow many ways—including combinations of symbols—of associating symbols and sounds.
english an opaque orthography
English: An Opaque Orthography

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

English may use many combinations of symbols for a given sound. For example,

  • “f” and “ph” in fantasy and pharmacy
  • “ee,” “ei,” and “ea”in need, receive, and read
  • “u” for umbrella or Utah
spanish a transparent orthography
Spanish: A Transparent Orthography
  • There is generally a 1:1 correspondence between letters and sounds. For example:

/p/ /a/ /s/ /e/ /o/ paseo

/a/ s/ i/ /a/ Asia

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

second language acquisition
Second Language Acquisition

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Factors:

  • Age of first contact with new language (L2)
  • Proficiency in first language (L1)
  • Language-learning ability
  • Intensity of instruction and opportunities to learn
slide33

ASSESSMENT

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

assessment challenges
Assessment Challenges

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Assessments of content-area knowledge and skills are also inherently tests of language proficiency.

They require additional cognitive resources of ELLs, who thus have fewer cognitive resources to attend to the content.

components of language proficiency
Components of Language Proficiency

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

  • Oral (listening and speaking) skills
  • Written (reading and writing) skills
  • Academic and non-academic language
purpose of language proficiency tests for ells
Purpose ofLanguage Proficiency Tests for ELLs

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

  • To determine placement in language programs
  • To monitor students’ progress while in these programs
  • To guide decisions about when students should exit the programs

(August & Hakuta, 1997)

in what language should ells be assessed
In What LanguageShould ELLs Be Assessed?

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Native Language:

  • May give more accurate picture of student’s knowledge and skills
  • May be less predictive of English skills than an English assessment, depending upon schooling history

English:

  • May better predict English skills than a native language assessment
  • May reflect misunderstandings of assessment directions more than actual skill levels
  • May also reflect the ELL’s schooling experiences in English
testing in both languages
Testing in Both Languages

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

May provide a clearer picture of knowledge, skills, abilities, and instructional needs

Ideally, instructions, even for English assessments, should be given in the student’s first language for bilingual/ biliterate ELLs

testing in both languages challenges
Testing in Both Languages:Challenges

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Difficult to find comparable assessments in first language and English

Technically and financially demanding

Variations in dialect

Many skills being assessed depend on instruction, but much instruction is only in English

vocabulary
VOCABULARY

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

language is central to learning
Language is Central to Learning

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Key areas of instruction:

  • Vocabulary knowledge – an important predictor of reading fluency and reading comprehension for ELLs and non-ELLs (Grabe, 1991; McLaughlin, 1987)
  • Academic language – critical for reading and understanding content
policy context of language development instruction
Policy Context ofLanguage Development Instruction

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Schools must provide instruction that allows ELLs to acquire content-area knowledge while they are developing proficiency in English (NCLB, 2001).

principles of vocabulary instruction
Principles of Vocabulary Instruction

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Teach high utility words that appear often across content areas and are key to comprehension.

Present definitions and examples of use in context.

Provide multiple exposures to meaningful information about the word (Stahl & Nagy, 2006).

Use cognate knowledge (Dressler, 2000).

Teach word analysis and other word-learning skills.

Engage students in learning words through talking about, comparing, analyzing, and using target words.

vocabulary and comprehension upper elementary grades
Vocabulary and Comprehension: Upper Elementary Grades

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Native English speakers often depend on background knowledge and inferential skills when reading text.

ELLs seem to rely more on their vocabulary knowledge when reading the same texts.

vocabulary instruction to support text comprehension
Vocabulary Instruction to Support Text Comprehension

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

ELLs’ reading comprehension can be improved with targeted vocabulary intervention (Carlo et al., 2004).

Students may need long-term intervention for maximum impact and comprehension development (McLaughlin, August, & Snow, 2000).

vocabulary and comprehension
Vocabulary and Comprehension

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Key components of instruction for ELLs:

  • Developing increased flexibility of English-language use
  • Learning words (vocabulary) in context
  • Distinguishing between important and unimportant text details and events
  • Responding orally to texts in increasingly skillful ways
  • Participating in student conversations related to text

(Anderson & Roit, 1998)

vocabulary building instructional strategies
Vocabulary-Building Instructional Strategies

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

  • High frequency English words
  • General purpose academic words
  • Content-area vocabulary
  • English-Spanish cognates (for Spanish-speaking ELLs)
  • Words conveying key concepts
  • High-utility words
  • Relevant to content under study
  • Words that are meaningful to students

(Gersten, Baker, & Unok Marks, 1998; Stahl & Nagy, 2006)

academic language
ACADEMIC LANGUAGE

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

dimensions of language
Dimensions of Language

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Conversational language

Used daily to communicate with others

Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS) (Cummins, 1979)

Academic language

The language of text and content areas

Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) (Cummins, 1979)

use of academic language
Use of Academic Language

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

To participate fully in the classroom and learn new content, ELLs must be able to

  • Use and understand academic language in its various forms, for a variety of purposes;
  • Learn new words (vocabulary) in context;
  • Determine the difference between relevant and less relevant text in a given passage and the necessity of a specific reading and/or language task; and
  • Participate in student conversations related to text.
academic language and school success
Academic Language and School Success

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Students need Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS).

However, good conversational skills may be accompanied by poor academic language skills.

Therefore, students need to develop Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) to deal with academic content (Cummins, 1994).

students need academic language
Students Need Academic Language

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

to understand teacher explanations,

to discuss what is being learned,

to read for different purposes, and

to write about their learning.

academic language1
Academic Language:

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Is difficult for non-native speakers and many native speakers who are struggling readers;

Uses and requires comprehension of a variety of language forms for a variety of purposes; and

Incorporates multiple language structures.

what constitutes academic language
What Constitutes Academic Language?

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

  • Vocabulary knowledge
    • Breadth: knowing the meanings of many words, including multiple words for the same, or related, concepts
    • Depth: knowing multiple meanings, both common and uncommon, for a given word
  • Understanding complex sentence structures and syntax
  • Recognizing written vocabulary as distinct from oral vocabulary
  • Understanding the structure of argument, academic discourse, and expository texts
role of vocabulary in academic language development
Role of Vocabulary in Academic Language Development

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Classroom and content vocabulary in academic texts differ from conversational vocabulary.

Academic vocabulary is critical to learning higher-level content and to performing well on achievement tests.

Academic language: explains, informs, justifies, compares, describes, classifies, proves, debates, persuades, evaluates.

creative methods to develop and reinforce word meanings
Creative Methods toDevelop and Reinforce Word Meanings

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Scripted books purposefully crafted to reinforce word meaning

Games for partner practice using picture cards

Games that give students incentives to listen for new words or previously taught words outside the vocabulary lesson

slide57

ELLs and Special Education

Strategic vocabulary interventions may reduce Special Education referrals and placement.

(August, Carlo, Dressler, & Snow, 2005)

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

academic language functions
Academic Language Functions

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Lower-Order Skills

  • Recalling facts
  • Identifying vocabulary
  • Creating definitions

Higher-Order Skills

  • Using language to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate
academic literacy
Academic Literacy

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

  • Is the reading proficiency required to construct the meaning of content-area texts and literature encountered in school
  • Encompasses the kind of reading proficiencies typically assessed on state-level accountability measures, such as the ability to
    • make inferences from text
    • learn new vocabulary from context
    • link ideas across texts
    • identify and summarize the most important ideas or content within a text

(Torgesen et al., 2007)

three methods of instruction for academic language development
Three Methods of Instruction for Academic Language Development:

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)

Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR)

Sheltered Instruction (SI)

cognitive academic language learning approach calla
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

  • Designed to increase ELLs’ achievement (Chamot & O’Malley, 1996)
  • Integrates: content-area instruction, language development, explicit instruction in learning strategies:
    • Valuing prior knowledge
    • Learning important content and language skills
    • Developing language awareness and critical literacy
    • Using appropriate learning strategies
    • Learning to work with others in social context
    • Learning through hands-on, inquiry-based and cooperative skills
    • Increasing motivation
    • Self-assessing learning
collaborative strategic reading csr
Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR)

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

Combines reading comprehension strategy and cooperative learning.

Is effective in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms with struggling readers, ELLs, students with learning disabilities, average, and high-achieving students.

Students work in small heterogeneous groups .

csr cont
CSR (cont.)

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

  • Cooperative groups use 4 reading strategies:
    • Preview (activate prior knowledge)
    • Click and chunk (monitor comprehension during reading, use strategies to understand)
    • Get the gist (during reading, restate main idea of paragraph or section)
    • Wrap-up (after reading, summarize new information, generate questions)
  • Peer interaction provides opportunities to use academic language in meaningful communication about academic content (Cazden, 1998; Richard-Amato & Snow, 1992).
  • Teacher acts as a facilitator.
slide64
CSR
  • BEFORE READING
  • 1. Preview
  • Brainstorm:
  • What do you know about the topic?
  • Predict:
  • What do you think you will learn?
  • AFTER READING
  • 4. Wrap-Up
  • Ask questions to check understanding
  • Review
  • DURING READING
  • 2. Click and chunk
  • Find hard-to-understand words or word parts (chunk)
  • Use strategies to fix chunks.
  • 3. Get the gist
  • Find the most important person place or thing
  • Identify its importance

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

sheltered instruction model si
Sheltered Instruction Model (SI)

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

A research-based approach to sheltered lesson planning and implementation

Demonstrated success in improving ELLs’ outcomes

Uses high quality strategies to develop ELLs’ academic English skills while learning grade-level content

Effective for all grade levels across the content areas

evaluation
EVALUATION

Funded by U.S. Department of Education

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