Introduction to Emotion  Module 40

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2. Emotion. Emotions are our body's adaptive response.. 3. Theories of Emotion. Emotions are a mix of 1) physiological activation, 2) expressive behaviors, and 3) conscious experience.. 4. Controversy. Does physiological arousal precede or follow your emotional experience?Does cognition (thinking) precedes emotion (feeling)?.

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Introduction to Emotion Module 40

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1. 1 Introduction to Emotion Module 40

2. 2 Where do emotions come from? Why do we have them? What are they made of? Where do emotions come from? Why do we have them? What are they made of?

3. 3 Theories of Emotion Emotions are a mix of 1) physiological activation, 2) expressive behaviors, and 3) conscious experience. OBJECTIVE 38-1| Identify three components of emotions, and contrast James-Lange, Canon-Bard and two factor theories of emotion.OBJECTIVE 38-1| Identify three components of emotions, and contrast James-Lange, Canon-Bard and two factor theories of emotion.

4. 4 Controversy Does physiological arousal precede or follow your emotional experience? Does cognition (thinking) precedes emotion (feeling)?

5. 5 Commonsense View As you become happy your heart starts beating faster. First comes conscious awareness then comes physiological activity.

6. 6 James-Lange Theory William James and Carl Lange proposed an idea that was diametrically opposed to the common-sense view. James-Lange theory proposes that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience. We feel sorry because we cry. After you are scared of something and your body responds, you know you are scared. Supported by research by Hohmann (1966). Interviewed people paralyzed from the neck down, or from the waist. Those paralyzed from the neck down who couldn’t feel their hearts pounding (for example) experienced emotion less intensely. We feel sorry because we cry. After you are scared of something and your body responds, you know you are scared. Supported by research by Hohmann (1966). Interviewed people paralyzed from the neck down, or from the waist. Those paralyzed from the neck down who couldn’t feel their hearts pounding (for example) experienced emotion less intensely.

7. 7 Cannon-Bard Theory Walter Cannon and Phillip Bard questioned James-Lange theory and proposed emotion-triggering stimulus and body's arousal take place simultaneously. 1) Cannon suggested that body’s responses were not distinct enough to evoke different emotions. 2) Physiological responses seemed too slow to trigger sudden emotions. Cortex and physiological system respond together. Heart pounds as you experience fear; one does not cause the other. 1) Cannon suggested that body’s responses were not distinct enough to evoke different emotions. 2) Physiological responses seemed too slow to trigger sudden emotions. Cortex and physiological system respond together. Heart pounds as you experience fear; one does not cause the other.

8. 8 Two-Factor Theory Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer proposed yet another theory which suggested that our physiology and our cognitions create emotions. Emotions have two factors–physical arousal and cognitive label. Says that our cognitive appraisal is an important part of the emotions we experience. Supported by their research in which they injected someone with epinephrine and then had them wait in a room with a person who was either elated or irritated. The subjects “caught” the emotion of the person they waited with – suggesting that the label we give our emotions is an important aspect of how we experience them. Says that our cognitive appraisal is an important part of the emotions we experience. Supported by their research in which they injected someone with epinephrine and then had them wait in a room with a person who was either elated or irritated. The subjects “caught” the emotion of the person they waited with – suggesting that the label we give our emotions is an important aspect of how we experience them.

9. Which theory would suggest that you experience the emotion of anger at the same time that your heart begins to beat rapidly? A. James-Lange theory B. Cannon-Bard theory C. two-factor theory D. adaptation-level phenomenon

10. If people who have just been aroused by watching rock videos are insulted, their feelings of anger will be greater than those of people who have been similarly provoked but were not previously aroused. This is best explained by the: A. relative deprivation principle. B. adaptation-level principle. C. catharsis hypothesis. D. two-factor theory.

11. When Mr. Morgan began to misinterpret his harmless symptoms of autonomic nervous system arousal as indicative of an impending heart attack, he suffered an unusually intense level of fear. His emotional suffering is best understood in terms of the: A. catharsis hypothesis. B. James-Lange theory. C. adaptation-level theory. D. two-factor theory.

12. 12 Embodied Emotion We know that emotions involve bodily response. Some of these response are easy to notice (butterflies in stomach when fear arises) but others are more difficult discern (neurons activated in the brain).

13. Cognition and Emotion The brain’s shortcut for emotions

14. Shortcut to Emotion Video (Requires a movie player) This movie demonstrates how individuals can react emotionally to a stimulus before they are able to identify it or assess it.

15. Dr. Piercy showed us the “boo movie” because: She is crazy. There’s no way to explain most of her behavior. It illustrates the Cannon Bard theory of emotion. It illustrates the Brain’s shortcut to emotion; bypasses the frontal lobes and going straight to the amygdala. It illustrates many creative ways of scaring your unsuspecting friends and family members.

16. 16 Emotions and Autonomic Nervous System During an emotional experience our autonomic nervous system mobilizes energy in the body and arouses us. OBJECTIVE 38-2| Describe the role of the autonomic nervous system during emotional arousal.OBJECTIVE 38-2| Describe the role of the autonomic nervous system during emotional arousal.

17. 17 Arousal and Performance Arousal in short spurts is adaptive. We perform better under moderate arousal, however optimal performance varies with task difficulty. OBJECTIVE 38-3| Discuss the relationship between arousal and performance.OBJECTIVE 38-3| Discuss the relationship between arousal and performance.

18. Phoebe will be competing in a basketball free throw contest. Her performance is likely to be ________ if her physiological arousal during the performance is ________. A. best; very low B. best; very high C. best; moderate D. worst; moderate

19. 19 Physiological Similarities Physiological responses are pretty much similar across the emotions of fear, anger, love and boredom. OBJECTIVE 38-4| Name three emotions that involve similar physiological arousal.OBJECTIVE 38-4| Name three emotions that involve similar physiological arousal.

20. 20 Physiological Differences Physical responses like finger temperature and facial muscles change during fear, rage and joy. OBJECTIVE 38-5| Describe some physiological and brain pattern indicators of specific emotions.OBJECTIVE 38-5| Describe some physiological and brain pattern indicators of specific emotions.

21. 21 Cognition Can Define Emotion Arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event. OBJECTIVE 38-6| Explain how spillover effect influences our experience of emotion.OBJECTIVE 38-6| Explain how spillover effect influences our experience of emotion.

22. 22 Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion A subliminally presented happy face can prime subjects to drink more than when presented with an angry face (Berridge & Winkeilman, 2003). OBJECTIVE 38-7| Distinguish the two alternate pathways that sensory stimuli may travel when triggering an emotional response.OBJECTIVE 38-7| Distinguish the two alternate pathways that sensory stimuli may travel when triggering an emotional response.

23. 23 Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion When fearful eyes were subliminally presented to subjects, fMRI scans revealed higher levels of amygdala’s activity than in the control (Whalen et al. 2004).

24. 24 Two Routes to Emotion Zajonc and LeDoux (1984) emphasize some emotions are immediate without conscious appraisal. Lazarus, Schachter and Singer (1998) emphasize that appraisal also determines emotions.

25. We have all heard about a lie detector or polygraph. You have taken a lie detector test because your boss thinks someone is stealing from the office. You are innocent, but unfortunately, you are informed that you have “failed” the polygraph test. Which of the following is NOT true about these tests? A. A polygraph cannot really detect the difference between arousal caused by anxiety and that caused by lying. B. Polygraph tests can easily be fooled. C. People who pass lie detector tests are innocent, but those who fail are not necessarily guilty. D. While widely used by police and government agencies, polygraphs often fail to identify the guilty.

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