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AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE: IAWJ Human Trafficking in Africa: A Regional and Domestic Response 18 OCTOBER 2007 PowerPoint PPT Presentation

AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE: IAWJ Human Trafficking in Africa: A Regional and Domestic Response 18 OCTOBER 2007. Definition of child trafficking ILO Conventions Main elements of child trafficking definition Definition of Trafficking vs.Migration Role of different UN agencies re trafficking

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AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE: IAWJ Human Trafficking in Africa: A Regional and Domestic Response 18 OCTOBER 2007

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Ilo tecl presentation 071018e

AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE: IAWJ

Human Trafficking in Africa:

A Regional and Domestic Response

18 OCTOBER 2007


Outline of presentation

Definition of child trafficking

ILO Conventions

Main elements of child trafficking definition

Definition of Trafficking vs.Migration

Role of different UN agencies re trafficking

Nature & extend of child trafficking in sub-region

Nature & extend of child trafficking in sub-region – South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia & Swaziland

ILO programme in sub-region

TECL child trafficking activities in sub-region

TECL activities against child trafficking in South Africa: CLPA, Pilots, Research, Legislation, Asset Forfeiture & Lessons learnt & action required

TECL action on child trafficking in the BLNS countries

TECL action on child trafficking on region level

Summary

Questions & Answers

Outline of Presentation


Definition of child trafficking

Under international law, child trafficking is a crime involving the movement of children for the purpose of their exploitation

The concept is defined in the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children of 2000, known as the Trafficking Protocol. It supplements the UN Convention against Trans-national Organized Crime.

Child trafficking is defined a Worst Forms of Child Labour according to ILO Convention No. 182 of 1999, or C182. It classifies trafficking among “forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery” and hence a worst form of child labour to be eliminated as a matter of urgency.

Short Definition: A child has been trafficked if the child has been moved within a country, or across borders, whether by force or not, with the purpose of exploitation

The two forms of human trafficking constitute the world’s third largest illegal trade, after arms and drug trafficking

The concept of child trafficking can be unpacked further drawing primarily from these two international instruments.

Overview of C182 – Worst forms of child labour

Main elements:

A child is a person under the age of 18 years;

Organised movement of a child

Purpose of the movement: exploitation;

Movement that renders the child vulnerable

No force or deception is required (regarding children)

Definition of child trafficking


Ilo conventions

Minimum Age of Employ-ment Convention, 1973 (C138)

Covers ‘employment’ and ‘work’ more broadly

Children under 15

Minimum age for work:15 years

Laws may permit light work for children of 13 and 14

But work may not be harmful for their development

Exemptions may be made in exceptional cases

e.g. Performing arts

Children 15-17

Law may not allow them to do work

which is likely to jeopardize their health, development etc.

Worst forms of child labour convention, 1999 (C182)

Commercial sexual exploitation

All forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery

Bonded labour

Child trafficking

Using of children in illegal activities

Drug trafficking

Housebreaking gangs

Children in very hazardous activities

To be defined by each country

“Usual” production methods may be hazardous to children

Because of their higher vulnerability

ILO Conventions

.

ILO members realised there is a need to prioritise the Worst Forms of Child Labour


Ilo tecl presentation 071018e

Child labour is work by a child that is

exploitative, hazardous or otherwise inappro-priate for the child’s age;

detrimental to the child’s schooling;

detrimental to the child’s social, physical, mental, spiritual or moral development.

Child work

is work that is not bad for a child’s health, schooling or development

Example: reasonable household chores that do not affect schooling

Definitions: Child work, child labour and worst forms of child labourAll regarding work by children under 18 years

Increased seriousness

Worst Forms of Child Labour

  • Commercial sexual exploitation of children

  • Children used by adults to commit crime

  • Child trafficking

  • Very hazardous work


Main elements of child trafficking definition 1

Main elements of child trafficking definition (1)

  • A child

    • is a person under the age of 18 years

  • Organised movement of a child

    • someone has organised the movement of a child - a transaction is involved

  • Movement that renders the child vulnerable

    • may be across international borders or within a country and where the movement has rendered the child vulnerable, and the vulnerability was planned to be exploited.

      • do not have close relatives at their destination, do not have money or means to return home,

      • cannot speak the language, are disadvantaged by their legal status,

      • suffer a lack of access to basic services (education and health care),

      • or do not know the environment


Main elements of child trafficking definition 2

Main elements of child trafficking definition (2)

  • Movement for exploitation:

    • The trafficking protocol (Article 3(a)) provides that exploitation includes:

      • the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation,

      • forced labour or services,

      • slavery or practices similar to slavery,

      • servitude or

      • the removal of organs

    • By stating that exploitation these kinds of exploitation it is clear that other kinds of exploitation are also included in the definition, such as labour exploitation.

    • Exploitation can occur at the beginning, middle or end of the trafficking process.

    • All those who have contributed to it and knew that what they did was likely to lead to the exploitation of the child

      • recruiters, intermediaries, document providers, transporters, corrupt officials, employers and exploiters – are traffickers.

    • Conversely, a person moving a child without the intention, knowledge or suspicion that the child would be exploited is not likely to be a trafficker


Main elements of child trafficking definition 3

Main elements of child trafficking definition (3)

  • Movement for labour exploitation

    • When read with the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention – C182, in the context of child labour, labour exploitation of children includes all kinds of work that exploits a child.

    • This overlaps with the forms of exploitation referred to in trafficking protocol.

    • But also includes work which,

      • by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children

        • all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, debt bondage and serfdom and forced or compulsory labour, including forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict (Convention 182, Art. 3(a));

        • the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution, for the production of pornography or for pornographic performances (C182, Art. 3(b));

        • the use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities, in particular for the production and trafficking of drugs as defined in the relevant international treaties (C182, Art. 3(c));

        • work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (C182, Art. 3(d) and C138, Art. 3);

    • Covers a broader scope of vulnerability and areas of exploitation of children


Main elements of child trafficking definition 4

Main elements of child trafficking definition (4)

  • No force or deception is required - regarding children

    • child trafficking occurs whether the child was moved voluntarily or by force

      • provided the other elements of the definition are met.

    • If during or soon after the child's movement there are elements of force, violence, or unreasonable restriction of the child movement at their place of work, or other harmful effects of the work on them

      • it would be a strong indication that trafficking may have occurred.

  • How is child trafficking different to trafficking in adults?

    • Difference in definition

    • State custodian of all children

      • What does this mean?

        • That we must be much more protective towards children?

        • Services to CHILDREN should be prioritised (rather than to adults)?

  • Belief that the outline presented will

    • promote also the use of C182 with the other international protocols and regional charters and local legislative frameworks and

    • the interests of vulnerable groups including children as a specific group affected by human trafficking


  • Definition of trafficking vs migration

    Where the movement of the child was not done with the purpose of exploitation, this is not child trafficking even where the child still ends up in exploitation.

    Even where the movement has led to greater vulnerability of the child and to labour exploitation.

    National laws may provide that migration-related child labour, even where this falls outside of the definition of child trafficking, is considered a worst form of child labour.

    Ito Article 3(d) of C182 worst forms include work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of the child.

    These kinds of work must be determined by national laws or regulations, after consultation with the organisations of employers and workers concerned.

    Definition of Trafficking vs.Migration


    Role of different un agencies re trafficking

    UNODC: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

    Custodian obo UN on trafficking in general tasked with assisting states to ratify and implement provisions of the international Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish the Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children.

    IOM: International Organization for Migration

    Promotes the positive management of migration and the protection of the rights of migrants globally, and works closely with the UN system through global agreement on various issues. Focus on regional activities (cross-border trafficking)

    UNICEF: United Nations Children’s Fund

    Support implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which includes the protection of children from exploitation and abuse, including trafficking

    ILO: International Labour Organization

    Trafficking in children for purposes of labour exploitation, which constitutes one of the worst forms of child labour and amount to forced labour ito C182

    Role of different UN agencies re trafficking


    Global initiative to fight human trafficking

    United Nations launched the Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT).

    The Steering Committee for this initiative involves a number of UN agencies at global level.

    The Southern African cooperation initiative on trafficking is a first-of-a-kind regional development that builds on the UN.GIFT

    At the heart of the issue is closer collaboration and teamwork

    Among international agencies, governments and NGOs

    The organisations asserted two factors, in particular, are critical to combating human trafficking

    Dedicated legislation on trafficking within every country and

    Effective working agreements between countries

    Close cooperation will enhance

    information sharing,

    strengthen the pool of expertise and

    enable the agencies to provide better support to the Southern African region as a whole.

    thereby enhancing the prospect of cross-border working agreements between countries.

    Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking


    Nature extend of child trafficking in sub region

    Widely agreed that there is an absence of reliable information regarding the extent to which trafficking in person is taking place either globally or on the African continent itself.

    The clandestine & transnational nature thereof makes it extremely difficult to apprehend or prosecute offenders or to verify information ito the scope and nature of the problem.

    Some efforts have been made to quantify the extent of trafficking on the global scale.

    US government sponsored research report, 2006 approx 800 000 people are trafficked across national borders every year

    this figure does not include those trafficked within their own countries.

    80% of transnational victims are women and girls and

    50% are minors.

    UNICEF correctly points out that their estimated figure 700,000 women and children trafficked every year in the world has yet to be tested scientifically.

    With this proviso in mind the following outline of the extent of the problem of trafficking in women and children

    Nature & extend of child trafficking in sub-region


    Nature extend of child trafficking in sub region south africa 1

    According to the TIP report SA is a source, transit & destination country for trafficked men, women, and children.

    SA girls are trafficked internally for

    commercial sexual exploitation and domestic servitude

    primary provinces of origin are the Eastern Cape and Kwa-Zulu Natal & primary provinces of destination are Gauteng and the Western Cape

    African countries are trafficked to SA for

    commercial sexual exploitation & domestic servitude: women and girls

    agricultural labour: boys and young men

    Thai, Chinese, & Eastern European are trafficked to SA for

    debt-bonded commercial sexual exploitation.

    Another aspect that manifests itself in SA is the trafficking of refugees

    Cape Town has been singled out as the principle destination point for trafficked victims of refugee producing countries.

    Nature & extend of child trafficking in sub-region – South Africa (1)


    Nature extend of child trafficking in sub region south africa 2

    Causal or facilitating factors:

    Internal trafficking

    An increase in unemployment and poverty

    High drop-out rates at school levels

    Inadequate service provision & poor understanding of policy implementation on the part of service providers

    An increased demand for sex with children from SA

    Lack of awareness about the concepts of sexual exploitation and trafficking

    Inadequate legislation

    Lack of arrests and convictions of traffickers and sex offenders

    Trafficking to SA

    the economic situation in SA

    factors such as the breakdown in extended and nuclear families

    changes in cultural attitudes and practices

    Despite the existence of available info, the exact numbers of children being trafficked in and outside SA has not been quantified and neither has the actual monetary income that this illegal activity generates been established.

    Nature & extend of child trafficking in sub-region – South Africa (2)


    Nature extend of child trafficking in sub region botswana

    Is named as a transit country for children being trafficked from other countries into SA for child labour, including commercial sexual exploitation

    Rapid Assessment study undertaken by ILO only identified 2 children that had been trafficked.

    Traditional movement of children between sections of the family was widespread

    purposes of care or education, which constitutes child fostering within the framework of the extended family

    in return, child is instructed and expected to perform duties such as child minding, livestock herding, fetching water, running errands, and performing other domestic duties

    Local journalist noted that while the situation is not as extreme as in other countries it is indeed a problem.

    Internal trafficking manifests through the proactive “sale” of children by parents who cannot support them or the targeting of poor families by people who take their children away with the promise of food, clothes and education.

    domestic workers or farm labourers.

    Is prevalent in areas adjacent to farms, where there is likely to be an occurrence of child labour, which in Botswana is closely linked with child trafficking.

    Nature & extend of child trafficking in sub-region – Botswana


    Nature extend of child trafficking in sub region lesotho

    Is named as a country of

    origin for trafficking in women and children

    mainly to SA

    transit and destination to a lesser extent

    Street children

    both male and female

    from Maseru are trafficked

    out of the country

    by long distance truck driver for sexual exploitation purposes

    become sex-slaves who are on route to other African countries such as Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi

    Nature & extend of child trafficking in sub-region – Lesotho


    Nature extend of child trafficking in sub region namibia

    Substantive information regarding trafficking of persons is not readily available.

    The TIP report provides no information.

    The ILO rapid assessment study undertaken

    only identified and interviewed 8 children who were trafficked for

    domestic/agricultural work, commercial sexual exploitation or any other work.

    however did hear of other cases where trafficking was known or suspected.

    SANTAC report

    internal trafficking found of girls as young as 13 and 14

    moved from Keepmanshoop, Okahadja to Oshikango

    cross border trafficking

    10 Namibian prostitutes were among 188 14-25-year-old foreign prostitutes freed from British brothels, massage parlours and private homes since February 2006.

    Nature & extend of child trafficking in sub-region – Namibia


    Nature extend of child trafficking in sub region swaziland

    Substantive information regarding trafficking of persons extremely limited.

    The TIP report provides no information.

    The ILO rapid assessment study undertaken

    Research involved the collection of qualitative data from a sample of 110 Swazi children employed as

    domestic workers, herders, farm workers, vendors and gardeners.

    Research findings indicated that

    Initial contact leading to their employment in distant places was usually made at the children’s homes, and often involved family or relatives.

    Potential employers promised employment, cash payment, and/or care and upkeep.

    While most of the promises were kept, others were not.

    Most of the children did not oppose the idea of being employed because they wanted to

    secure employment,

    escape poverty and deprivation and

    improve their standard of living and that of the family as a whole.

    Most of the children were not related or previously known to their employers.

    Working conditions of the children were often characterised by long hours of hard work, without rest, almost throughout the week.

    This state of affairs left them without time to play, relax, and interact with others, still less to do schoolwork.

    However, some of the findings suggest that not all of children in the sample were trafficked in the sense understood by some of the international legal instruments.

    Nature & extend of child trafficking in sub-region – Swaziland


    Ilo programme in sub region

    International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

    Programme Towards the Elimination of the worst forms of Child Labour (TECL)

    ILO members

    Government; Labour; Business

    IPEC programme: also works with NGOs

    Covering 5 countries

    South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana and Namibia

    Main objective

    To assist the countries to set up informed national action programmes for the elimination of child labour (BLNS)

    To assist the countries to implement key actions steps identified in national action programmes for the elimination of child labour (SA)

    As required by the countries’ ratification of ILO C182: Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour

    ILO Programme in sub-region


    Tecl activities against child trafficking in south africa clpa 1

    The Child Labour Programme of Action

    National effort by government, organised business,organised labour and civil society to address child labour

    It includes strategies to work towards the elimination of worst forms of child labour, including Child Trafficking

    Departments of Home Affairs, Foreign Affairs and Social Development

    The CLPA has been updated in 2007 from its initial version in 2003 – now called the CLPA-2, and will run 2008-2012

    See the child trafficking steps at www.child-labour.org.za

    TECL activities against child trafficking in South Africa: CLPA (1)


    Tecl activities against child trafficking in south africa pilots 2

    On-the-ground pilot projects in Gauteng

    Addresses commercial sexual exploitation of children and child trafficking

    Collaborate with already existing organisation: 6 pilot programme

    Hillbrow, Pretoria, Winterveldt

    Focus on prevention. Activities incl.:

    Development of awareness raising material to children at risk

    Training of peer educators and outreach work

    Bridging / remedial teaching

    Focus on withdrawal. Activities incl.:

    Establishment of 24h crisis centre (the 1st in Jhb!)

    Support to shelters

    Support to outreach activities

    Focus on educational rehabilitation. Activities incl.:

    Development of life skills material

    Compiling education and health profile on CSEC/CT children

    Compiling directory of education / skills development opportunities available to CSEC/CT children in reality (what has proved to work, where?)

    Assistance to access formal and informal education

    Focus on mainstreaming

    Feed lessons learnt and successful methods into relevant government structures, and fill gaps to improve circumstances of these children

    TECL activities against child trafficking in South Africa: Pilots (2)


    Tecl activities against child trafficking in south africa research 3

    Research: (get a clearer picture of nature and extent)

    Situation analysis, policy and literature review on CSEC & CT – finalised

    Very few grassroots organisations specialising in these two worst forms of child labour

    No national policies (other than Child Labour Programme of Action)

    Falls between the mandate of many government departments

    Often confusion re where responsibility lie

    Gaps in handovers of children

    Exact extent not known – little reliable data due to the mostly hidden nature

    More research (snapshots) under preparation

    Educational profile of children benefiting from the programme

    Qualitative research on these two worst forms of child labour at key sites

    TECL activities against child trafficking in South Africa: Research (3)


    Tecl activities against child trafficking in south africa legislation 4

    Assistance with legislation dealing with child trafficking

    One of the most comprehensive attempts to assess responses by governments to the problem of trafficking is the annual TIP Report of the US State Department.

    The 7th annual TIP report was released on 12 June 2007.

    South Africa is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to show increasing efforts to address trafficking over the last year

    Ironic, as the Children’s Act 38 of 2005 has been passed, albeit not promulgated.

    The lack of specific anti-trafficking statutes and explicit penalties for trafficking crimes continued to hamper law enforcement efforts

    To enhance its ability to combat trafficking,

    the government should fully implement the provisions of the Children's Act against child trafficking as it specifically criminalises child trafficking

    raise awareness among government officials as to their responsibilities under these provisions;

    develop procedures for victim protection, incl the screening of undocumented immigrants for signs of victimisation before deportation;

    ensure the Human Trafficking Inter-Sectoral Task Team is granted the authority to play its coordination role;

    government should compile national statistics on trafficking cases prosecuted and victims assisted, as it does for other crimes.

    TECL activities against child trafficking in South Africa: Legislation (4)


    Tecl activities against child trafficking in south africa legislation 41

    Proposed amendments

    Section 110: Reporting a child in need of care and protection

    110. (1) Any … or volunteer worker … who on reasonable grounds concludes that a child has been abused in a manner causing physical injury, sexually abused or deliberately neglected or involving exploitation, if it is in the best interest of the child concerned, must report that conclusion to …

    Section 305

    305. (1) A person is guilty of an offence if that person—

    (a) commits an act in contravention of the prohibition set out in section 12(2), (3), (4), (6), (7), or (8), or section 141(1);

    TECL activities against child trafficking in South Africa: Legislation (4)


    Tecl activities against child trafficking in south africa legislation cont 5

    Section 141: Exploitative child labour – new to align with C138 and C182 & seriousness of crime

    141. (1) No person may—

    (a) use, procure or offer a child, or attempt to do so, for slavery or practices similar to slavery including but not limited to debt bondage, servitude and serfdom, and forced or compulsory labour or provision of services;

    (b) use, procure, or offer a child, or attempt to do so, for purposes of commercial sexual exploitation;

    (c) use, procure or offer a child, or attempt to do so, for the commission of any offence listed in Schedule 1 or Schedule 2 of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977;

    (d) require or permit a child to engage for that person’s benefit in begging or scavenging or collecting waste from waste dumps or garbage.

    (2) A court may convict a person who contravenes section 141(1)(c) of both –

    (a) an offence in terms of section 141(1)(c); and

    (b) if that person also commits the offence that they used, procured or offered a child to commit, or attempted to do so, that offence.

    (3) If a person is convicted of a offence in terms of sub-section 1 read with section 305(1)(b) the court on convicting that person and determining a sentence must consider as a factor in aggravation of sentence –

    (a) that South Africa has ratified the International Labour Organisation’s Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999;

    (b) that the offence constitutes a worst form of child labour in terms of that Convention.

    (4) A social worker or social service professional who becomes aware of instances of child labour or contraventions of the provisions of the Basic Conditions of Employment Act, 1997 must report it to the Department of Labour, in the manner as will be prescribed.

    TECL activities against child trafficking in South Africa: Legislation Cont (5)


    Tecl activities against child trafficking in south africa legislation cont 6

    Amendments required regarding the s 75 Act - Definitions

    Definition: ‘abuse’ …

    (d) child labour that involves the exploitation of a child [a labour practice that exploits a child]; or …

    Definition: 'exploitation’ …

    (a) any activity prohibited in terms of section 141(1); and

    (b) the removal or attempted removal of body parts

    TECL activities against child trafficking in South Africa: Legislation Cont (6)


    Tecl activities against child trafficking in south africa asset forfeiture 7

    Purpose

    To pilot action regarding asset forfeiture as an intervention to discourage worst forms of child labour, including child trafficking;

    Taking action against perpetrators benefiting from proceeds derived from criminal activities

    Two legged process

    Civil proceeding: seizing of assets derived from criminal activities

    Criminal proceedings: prosecuting of perpetrator

    Prosecutor to proof the instrumentality of the asset to the illegal activity

    Overall Objectives

    Run pilot project together with the Asset Forfeiture Unit of the NPA aimed at seizing of assets related to cases of worst forms of child labour

    Put in place tools & programmes to facilitate future asset forfeiture activities in the context of WFCL

    Elements

    To identify potential cases regarding WFCL incl CT where asset forfeiture could be an appropriate intervention

    To advise on what measures should be put in place to protect those involved incl the children and to involve other players as needed to facilitate protection of such children

    Once potential cases are identified assist with the draw up an initial dossier and to facilitate action to be taken to seize assets in appropriate cases

    To assist the AFU in the preparation of asset forfeiture proceedings as appropriate, in particular, to provide expert evidence relating to the prevalence of the particular type of WFCL

    In general, to raise awareness within the justice sector on worst forms of child labour, including child trafficking and the need to consider asset forfeiture measures

    To draw up guidelines to be used for future cases of potential asset forfeiture

    TECL activities against child trafficking in South Africa: Asset Forfeiture (7)


    Lessons learnt so far action required 1

    Role of Government

    The absence of a specific law on child trafficking is a serious loophole that undermines the global effort to stop child trafficking.

    Often not clear which government department to approach: Protocolsare needed and must be enforced

    All children to be treated equally – including immigrant and refugee children: departments must take responsibility for these children ito monitoring and facilitate assistance required such as issuing of required documentation to enable access to schools, grants etc.

    Organisations assisting these children are

    Swamped with children in dire need

    More shelter beds must be secured

    Financially struggling – difficult to access state funding

    Sufficient & continued funding must be secured

    Insufficient human resources – high turnover in staff/volunteers, each child is very time consuming

    Struggling to get documents for children – no identity book / birth certificate no grant, no access to school

    Struggling to get children into school

    Real access to education & skills training must be secured

    Lessons learnt so far & action required (1)


    Lessons learnt so far action required 2

    Greater community awareness

    Of worst forms of child labour, including child trafficking is needed

    Ubuntu is still alive!

    What can you do?

    Applauded the progress made by South Africa in developing legislation against child trafficking but urged to move with speed to put such laws into effect!

    To promote the need for legislative and judicial intervention!

    Lessons learnt so far & action required (2)


    Tecl child trafficking activities in blns countries

    Research on trafficking of children:

    Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland completed

    Will be used to inform a 5-country report on child trafficking – end Oct 07

    Policy

    CT is not an offence in the BLNS countries

    National Action Programme on the Elimination of Child labour being drafted in Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland

    All will address the issue of child trafficking

    TECL child trafficking activities in BLNS countries


    Tecl action on child trafficking on region level

    To assist other UN agencies in addressing issues regarding trafficking in children

    Regional agreements / protocols / instruments:

    drafting or ensuring that current drafts are aligned with the countries’ efforts to eliminate child trafficking

    Training

    for SARPCCO countries: UNODC

    handbook on trafficking to be used for training prosecutors, immigration officials and social workers in SA: IOM

    Support to regional forums

    Participates in sub-regional conferences

    such as Africa Regional Conference: IAWJ

    TECL action on child trafficking on regionlevel


    Summary

    C182 read with other international laws and protocols

    highlights the difference between child trafficking and adult trafficking

    Nature of vulnerabilities exposed to requiring specific action and support to children

    Provides broader category of exploitation to be considered

    Labour exploitation – incl worst forms of child labour

    Legislative reform

    Need to push to get legislation in place / implemented as priority if in place

    Need to consider international laws / protocols etc

    Can also be used as an interim measure with constitutions in place!

    Summary


    Ilo tecl presentation 071018e

    THANK YOU

    Questions & Answers

    For more info: [email protected] / (012) 431-8827/9

    Mr Dawie Bosch: Chief Technical Advisor

    Ms Elna Hirschfeld: Programme Coordinator


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