Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys- MICS3
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Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys- MICS3 Analysis and Report Writing Workshop Panama City, July 12-20, 2006. Education. Indicators . Participation Pre-school attendance School readiness Net intake rate in primary education Net primary school attendance rate

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Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys- MICS3

Analysis and Report Writing Workshop

Panama City, July 12-20, 2006

Education


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Indicators

  • Participation

  • Pre-school attendance

  • School readiness

  • Net intake rate in primary education

  • Net primary school attendance rate

  • Net secondary school attendance rate

  • Female to male education ratio (gender parity index-GPI)

  • Progression

  • Survival rate to grade five

  • Transition rate to secondary school

  • Net primary completion rate

  • Adult literacy rate


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Goals

  • World Fit for Children (WFFC)

  • Providing quality education

  • Early childhood education

  • Children out of school and alternative education

  • Numeracy, literacy and essential life skills

  • Adult literacy

  • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

  • Achieve universal primary education

  • Promote gender equality and empower women


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Why to measure education?

  • Reasons:

  • Provide a comprehensive description of children’s participation and progression in the education system

  • To evaluate impact of programs and interventions based on trends


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Data sources

  • Administrative records

  • Population census

  • School surveys

  • Household surveys


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Are there differences? if yes why?

  • Existing evidence:

  • Different concepts and definitions (enrolment versus attendance)

  • Deficient administrative records

  • Measurement errors


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Which is the approach in MICS3?

  • Estimation of indicators based on household survey to inform data from administrative records

  • Use other existing estimates and compare along time

  • Report within the existing context of data availability and limitations


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Which countries included this module in MICS3?

  • 6 out of 7

  • Belize, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Jamaica, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago

  • Cuba included part of the module only

  • Mongolia?


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Pre-school net attendance ratio

  • Numerator:

  • Number of children aged 36-59 months that attend some form of early childhood education programme

  • Denominator:

  • Total number of children aged 36-59 months surveyed


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[I1]Adapt code categories to locally-relevant ones and pre-test.


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Methodological issues

  • The results are presented for 3-4 years only

  • It is possible to estimate pre-school participation for 5-6 years old from data collected with the household questionnaire

  • However, these numbers are not comparable mainly because pre-school participation not always include non-formal early learning centers


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School readiness

  • Numerator:

  • Number of children in first grade that attended some form of pre-school the previous year

  • Denominator:

  • Total number of children in the first grade surveyed


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SPSS Program

  • Generates basic table: ED.1

  • Generates:

    • the percentage of 3 and 4 year old attending early education: total and by background variables

    • the percentage of children attending first grade who attended ECE the year before


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Net intake rate in primary education

  • Numerator:

  • Number of children of primary school-entry age that are currently attending first grade

  • Denominator:

  • Total number of children of primary-school entry age surveyed


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SPSS Program

  • Generates basic table: ED.2

  • Percentage of children of primary school-entry age that are currently attending first grade


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Primary school net attendance rate

  • Numerator:

  • Number of children of primary-school age currently attending primary or secondary school

  • Denominator:

  • Total number of children of primary-school age surveyed

  • Note: the primary school age is defined at the country level and agreed at the international level via ISCED1


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Primary school ages according to ISCED1

  • Belize 5-10

  • Cuba 6-11

  • Dominican Republic 6-11

  • Guyana 6-11

  • Jamaica 6-11

  • Suriname 6-11

  • Trinidad and Tobago 5-11

  • Mongolia 8-11


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SPSS Program

  • Generates basic table: ED.3

  • Percentage of children of primary-school age currently attending primary or secondary school


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Secondary school net attendance rate

  • Numerator:

  • Number of children of secondary-school age currently attending secondary or tertiary school

  • Denominator:

  • Total number of children of secondary-school age surveyed

  • Note: the secondary school age is defined at the country level and agreed at the international level via ISCED2


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Secondary school ages according to ISCED2

  • Belize 11-16

  • Cuba 12-16

  • Dominican Republic 13-17

  • Guyana 12-16

  • Jamaica 12-16

  • Suriname 12-17

  • Trinidad and Tobago 12-16

  • Mongolia 12-17


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SPSS Program

  • Generates basic table: ED.4

  • Percentage of children of secondary school age currently attending secondary or tertiary school


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Methodological issues

  • Results refer to attendance instead of enrolment

  • In reality we should aim to measure attendance

  • Enrolment tends to over estimate school participation

  • Results refer to net attendance instead of gross

  • Gross attendance in primary/secondary education includes children of no primary/no secondary education ages

  • Gross attendance ratios can be greater than 100%

  • Primary/secondary attendance ratios include children attending primary or higher/secondary or higher


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Female to male education ratioGender parity index (GPI)

  • Numerator:

  • Girls net enrolment/attendance ratio in primary, secondary, or tertiary education

  • Denominator:

  • Boys net enrolment/attendance ratio in primary, secondary, or tertiary education


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SPSS Program

  • Generates basic table: ED.7

  • Generates:

    • gender parity index for primary net attendance ratios (girls/boys)

    • gender parity index for secondary net attendance ratios (girls/boys)


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Methodological issues

  • GPIs are based on net attendance ratios (primary/secondary)

  • Sometimes GPIs are based on gross attendance/enrolment ratios (primary/secondary)

  • Gross ratios are mostly used when data is not available by age of the child

  • Net is preferred over gross because it describes better the situation in terms to gender equality (the ideal situation)

  • Gross ratios are useful when children are not attending the grade that corresponds to their age


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A holistic approach

  • To better describe school participation we propose:

  • Look at primary and secondary together

  • Use the following 3 simple indicators:

    • Primary net attendance ratio

    • Secondary net attendance ratio

    • Percentage of secondary school age children that are attending primary school

  • Present analysis of school participation (levels and GPI) in a comprehensive way rather than primary and secondary separated


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Using Gross ratios:

PGAR = (B+E)/A = (2,413+ 1,085)/2,559=137%

Using Net Ratios:

PNAR = B/A = 2,413/2,559 = 94%

SNAR = F/C = 1,092/2,669 = 41%

Ratio of SAP/PS = E/C = 1,085/2,669 = 41%


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The analysis then produces…

  • Primary education among children 6-11years of age:

    • 94% attend primary or higher

    • 6% do not attend primary education

  • Secondary education among children 12-17:

    • 41% attend secondary or higher

    • 41% attend primary education

    • 18% do not attend school

  • In total, we have that 24% of the children 6-17 years of age are out of school


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Survival rate to grade five

  • Definition:

  • Proportion of children entering the first grade of primary school that eventually reach grade five


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Survival rate to grade 5

  • The percentage of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5 is calculated as the product of four probabilities:

    • the probability that a child in grade 1 eventually reaches grade 2

    • the probability that a child in grade 2 eventually reaches grade 3

    • the probability that a child in grade 3 eventually reaches grade 4

    • the probability that a child in grade 4 eventually reaches grade 5


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Example: to calculate the probability that a child in grade 1 eventually reaches grade 2

  • the number of children who are in 2nd grade of primary school at the time of the survey and who were in 1st grade last year

  • is divided by:

  • the number of children who were in 1st grade last year and graduated to 2nd grade or dropped out of school



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SPSS Program

  • Generates basic table: ED.5

  • Probability that children who enter grade 1 of primary school, eventually reach grade 5


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Methodological issues

  • RG5 is an indicator with some degree of difficulty for both estimation and interpretation

  • Note that in the current approach we exclude from our estimation children found to be repeating a grade under the assumption that their probability of dropping from school, repeating again, or promotion to the next grade is included in the other cohorts

  • It measures the probability for children starting grade 1 to reach grade 5 and it is based on children that are participating in school

  • It is used as a proxy for literacy among children


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Net primary completion ratio

  • Numerator:

  • Number of children of primary school completion age attending the last grade of primary school

  • Denominator:

  • Total number of children of primary school completion age (age appropriate to final grade of primary school) surveyed


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Transition rate to secondary school

  • Numerator:

  • Number of children that were in the last grade of primary school during the previous school year that attend secondary school

  • Denominator:

  • Total number of children that were in the last grade of primary school during the previous school year surveyed


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SPSS Program

  • Generates basic table: ED.6

  • Generates:

    • Net primary school completion ratios

    • Transition rates to secondary education


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Literacy rate

  • Numerator:

  • Number of women aged 15-24 years that are able to read a short simple statement about everyday lifeDenominator:

  • Total number of women aged 15-24 years surveyed


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SPSS Program

  • Generates basic table: ED.8

  • Percentage of women 15-24 years of age identified as literate


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Methodological issues

  • Literacy among women 15-24 years of age is used as a proxy for adult literacy

  • It measures the ability to read a few sentences

  • Its interpretation should be done cautiously

  • Presents a gender component



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