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Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys- MICS3 Analysis and Report Writing Workshop Panama City, July 12-20, 2006. Education. Indicators . Participation Pre-school attendance School readiness Net intake rate in primary education Net primary school attendance rate

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Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys- MICS3

Analysis and Report Writing Workshop

Panama City, July 12-20, 2006

Education

indicators
Indicators
  • Participation
  • Pre-school attendance
  • School readiness
  • Net intake rate in primary education
  • Net primary school attendance rate
  • Net secondary school attendance rate
  • Female to male education ratio (gender parity index-GPI)
  • Progression
  • Survival rate to grade five
  • Transition rate to secondary school
  • Net primary completion rate
  • Adult literacy rate
goals
Goals
  • World Fit for Children (WFFC)
  • Providing quality education
  • Early childhood education
  • Children out of school and alternative education
  • Numeracy, literacy and essential life skills
  • Adult literacy
  • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
  • Achieve universal primary education
  • Promote gender equality and empower women
why to measure education
Why to measure education?
  • Reasons:
  • Provide a comprehensive description of children’s participation and progression in the education system
  • To evaluate impact of programs and interventions based on trends
data sources
Data sources
  • Administrative records
  • Population census
  • School surveys
  • Household surveys
are there differences if yes why
Are there differences? if yes why?
  • Existing evidence:
  • Different concepts and definitions (enrolment versus attendance)
  • Deficient administrative records
  • Measurement errors
which is the approach in mics3
Which is the approach in MICS3?
  • Estimation of indicators based on household survey to inform data from administrative records
  • Use other existing estimates and compare along time
  • Report within the existing context of data availability and limitations
which countries included this module in mics3
Which countries included this module in MICS3?
  • 6 out of 7
  • Belize, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Jamaica, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago
  • Cuba included part of the module only
  • Mongolia?
pre school net attendance ratio
Pre-school net attendance ratio
  • Numerator:
  • Number of children aged 36-59 months that attend some form of early childhood education programme
  • Denominator:
  • Total number of children aged 36-59 months surveyed
methodological issues
Methodological issues
  • The results are presented for 3-4 years only
  • It is possible to estimate pre-school participation for 5-6 years old from data collected with the household questionnaire
  • However, these numbers are not comparable mainly because pre-school participation not always include non-formal early learning centers
school readiness
School readiness
  • Numerator:
  • Number of children in first grade that attended some form of pre-school the previous year
  • Denominator:
  • Total number of children in the first grade surveyed
spss program
SPSS Program
  • Generates basic table: ED.1
  • Generates:
    • the percentage of 3 and 4 year old attending early education: total and by background variables
    • the percentage of children attending first grade who attended ECE the year before
net intake rate in primary education
Net intake rate in primary education
  • Numerator:
  • Number of children of primary school-entry age that are currently attending first grade
  • Denominator:
  • Total number of children of primary-school entry age surveyed
spss program20
SPSS Program
  • Generates basic table: ED.2
  • Percentage of children of primary school-entry age that are currently attending first grade
primary school net attendance rate
Primary school net attendance rate
  • Numerator:
  • Number of children of primary-school age currently attending primary or secondary school
  • Denominator:
  • Total number of children of primary-school age surveyed
  • Note: the primary school age is defined at the country level and agreed at the international level via ISCED1
primary school ages according to isced1
Primary school ages according to ISCED1
  • Belize 5-10
  • Cuba 6-11
  • Dominican Republic 6-11
  • Guyana 6-11
  • Jamaica 6-11
  • Suriname 6-11
  • Trinidad and Tobago 5-11
  • Mongolia 8-11
spss program25
SPSS Program
  • Generates basic table: ED.3
  • Percentage of children of primary-school age currently attending primary or secondary school
secondary school net attendance rate
Secondary school net attendance rate
  • Numerator:
  • Number of children of secondary-school age currently attending secondary or tertiary school
  • Denominator:
  • Total number of children of secondary-school age surveyed
  • Note: the secondary school age is defined at the country level and agreed at the international level via ISCED2
secondary school ages according to isced2
Secondary school ages according to ISCED2
  • Belize 11-16
  • Cuba 12-16
  • Dominican Republic 13-17
  • Guyana 12-16
  • Jamaica 12-16
  • Suriname 12-17
  • Trinidad and Tobago 12-16
  • Mongolia 12-17
spss program30
SPSS Program
  • Generates basic table: ED.4
  • Percentage of children of secondary school age currently attending secondary or tertiary school
methodological issues32
Methodological issues
  • Results refer to attendance instead of enrolment
  • In reality we should aim to measure attendance
  • Enrolment tends to over estimate school participation
  • Results refer to net attendance instead of gross
  • Gross attendance in primary/secondary education includes children of no primary/no secondary education ages
  • Gross attendance ratios can be greater than 100%
  • Primary/secondary attendance ratios include children attending primary or higher/secondary or higher
female to male education ratio gender parity index gpi
Female to male education ratioGender parity index (GPI)
  • Numerator:
  • Girls net enrolment/attendance ratio in primary, secondary, or tertiary education
  • Denominator:
  • Boys net enrolment/attendance ratio in primary, secondary, or tertiary education
spss program36
SPSS Program
  • Generates basic table: ED.7
  • Generates:
    • gender parity index for primary net attendance ratios (girls/boys)
    • gender parity index for secondary net attendance ratios (girls/boys)
methodological issues38
Methodological issues
  • GPIs are based on net attendance ratios (primary/secondary)
  • Sometimes GPIs are based on gross attendance/enrolment ratios (primary/secondary)
  • Gross ratios are mostly used when data is not available by age of the child
  • Net is preferred over gross because it describes better the situation in terms to gender equality (the ideal situation)
  • Gross ratios are useful when children are not attending the grade that corresponds to their age
a holistic approach
A holistic approach
  • To better describe school participation we propose:
  • Look at primary and secondary together
  • Use the following 3 simple indicators:
    • Primary net attendance ratio
    • Secondary net attendance ratio
    • Percentage of secondary school age children that are attending primary school
  • Present analysis of school participation (levels and GPI) in a comprehensive way rather than primary and secondary separated
slide40

Using Gross ratios:

PGAR = (B+E)/A = (2,413+ 1,085)/2,559=137%

Using Net Ratios:

PNAR = B/A = 2,413/2,559 = 94%

SNAR = F/C = 1,092/2,669 = 41%

Ratio of SAP/PS = E/C = 1,085/2,669 = 41%

the analysis then produces
The analysis then produces…
  • Primary education among children 6-11years of age:
    • 94% attend primary or higher
    • 6% do not attend primary education
  • Secondary education among children 12-17:
    • 41% attend secondary or higher
    • 41% attend primary education
    • 18% do not attend school
  • In total, we have that 24% of the children 6-17 years of age are out of school
survival rate to grade five
Survival rate to grade five
  • Definition:
  • Proportion of children entering the first grade of primary school that eventually reach grade five
survival rate to grade 5
Survival rate to grade 5
  • The percentage of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5 is calculated as the product of four probabilities:
      • the probability that a child in grade 1 eventually reaches grade 2
      • the probability that a child in grade 2 eventually reaches grade 3
      • the probability that a child in grade 3 eventually reaches grade 4
      • the probability that a child in grade 4 eventually reaches grade 5
example to calculate the probability that a child in grade 1 eventually reaches grade 2
Example: to calculate the probability that a child in grade 1 eventually reaches grade 2
  • the number of children who are in 2nd grade of primary school at the time of the survey and who were in 1st grade last year
  • is divided by:
  • the number of children who were in 1st grade last year and graduated to 2nd grade or dropped out of school
spss program48
SPSS Program
  • Generates basic table: ED.5
  • Probability that children who enter grade 1 of primary school, eventually reach grade 5
methodological issues50
Methodological issues
  • RG5 is an indicator with some degree of difficulty for both estimation and interpretation
  • Note that in the current approach we exclude from our estimation children found to be repeating a grade under the assumption that their probability of dropping from school, repeating again, or promotion to the next grade is included in the other cohorts
  • It measures the probability for children starting grade 1 to reach grade 5 and it is based on children that are participating in school
  • It is used as a proxy for literacy among children
net primary completion ratio
Net primary completion ratio
  • Numerator:
  • Number of children of primary school completion age attending the last grade of primary school
  • Denominator:
  • Total number of children of primary school completion age (age appropriate to final grade of primary school) surveyed
transition rate to secondary school
Transition rate to secondary school
  • Numerator:
  • Number of children that were in the last grade of primary school during the previous school year that attend secondary school
  • Denominator:
  • Total number of children that were in the last grade of primary school during the previous school year surveyed
spss program53
SPSS Program
  • Generates basic table: ED.6
  • Generates:
    • Net primary school completion ratios
    • Transition rates to secondary education
literacy rate
Literacy rate
  • Numerator:
  • Number of women aged 15-24 years that are able to read a short simple statement about everyday lifeDenominator:
  • Total number of women aged 15-24 years surveyed
spss program56
SPSS Program
  • Generates basic table: ED.8
  • Percentage of women 15-24 years of age identified as literate
methodological issues58
Methodological issues
  • Literacy among women 15-24 years of age is used as a proxy for adult literacy
  • It measures the ability to read a few sentences
  • Its interpretation should be done cautiously
  • Presents a gender component
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