A Case Study of Virtual Museum: Reconstruction and Restoration of Dunhuang Caves in China
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A Case Study of Virtual Museum: Reconstruction and Restoration of Dunhuang Caves in China Jiaoying Shi State Key Lab of CAD&CG College of Computer Science and Engineering Zhejiang University jyshi@cad.zju.edu.cn 2003.8 Contents Introduction of Dunhuang Mogao Caves

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A Case Study of Virtual Museum: Reconstruction and Restoration of Dunhuang Caves in China Jiaoying Shi State Key Lab of CAD&CG

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A Case Study of Virtual Museum: Reconstruction and Restoration of Dunhuang Caves in China

Jiaoying Shi

State Key Lab of CAD&CG

College of Computer Science and Engineering

Zhejiang University

jyshi@cad.zju.edu.cn

2003.8


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Contents

  • Introduction of Dunhuang Mogao Caves

  • Reconstruction of Dunhuang Mogao Caves

  • Restoration of the Murals in Dunhuang Mogao Caves


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1. Introduction of Dunhuang Mogao Caves

  • It’s located in North-West desert area of China

  • Start excavating in Jin Dynasty(336 A.D), 1600 years old.


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  • There still exist 492 intact caves, more than 2400 painted sculptures, over 45000 square meter murals and wood architectures of Tang and Song Dynasty

murals

architectures

painted sculptures


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  • Named as World History and Culture Heritage by UNESCO in 1987

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION

CONVENTION CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF

THE WORLD CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE

The World Heritage Committee

Has inscribed

The Mogao Caves

On the world Heritage list

Inscription on this List confirms the exceptional

And universal value of a cultural or

Natural site which requires protection for the benefit

Of all humanity


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  • The perennial invasion of sand blown by the wind has also done great damage to the treasury, thus putting it in severe danger.

  • In order to protect the Mogao Caves furthermore, today a severe measure of limiting the visitors number is taken by the local administrator.

  • So it is very urgent to build a virtual Museum of Dunhuang Mogao Caves to disseminate this World Cultural Heritage broadly.


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2. Reconstruction of Dunhuang Mogao Caves

  • Surveying the caves

  • Modeling the caves


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  • Digitizing the murals

  • photographing bracket

  • Demo of Shooting

The criterion: well-proportioned lighting, parallel moving and partial overlaps


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  • Mapping the murals onto the model

Mapping


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Mosaicing Images


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  • Digitization of three-dimensional culture relics

  • Acquiring high-precision 3D models by 3D scanner

  • The model acquired by 3D scan


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  • Digitization and modeling of outdoor scene

    1

    2

Take photos of out-door scene in a fixed point

Adjusting and mosaicing


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Demo1: The navigation of Dunhuang Mogao Caves


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Demo2: The navigation of Outdoor Scene of Dunhuang Mogao Caves


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3. Restoration of the Murals of Dunhuang Mogao Caves

  • The murals and sculptures in Dunhuang Mogao Caves have experienced color changes and impairment over 1600 years.

  • Introducing 3 techniques for virtual restoration of the mural color of Dunhuang Mogao Caves.


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Virtual Color

Restoration

Reasoning Based on Scientific Rules

Analogical Thinking Model

Reasoning Based on experience knowledge


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Reasoning Based on Scientific Rules

Chemical Color Changing Rule

Physical Color Changing Rule

Experience Knowledge

Computer

Color Changing Model

in Computer


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Chemical Color Changing Rule

According to the chemical knowledge of Dunhuang researchers, we got the Chemical Color Changing Rule.

Changing gradually

Red Lead Oxide (PbO2 ) + Oxygen(O2 ) Pb3O4


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Physical Color Changing Rule

Over some time t, the color gradually changes or fades by covered dust.

It is essential a color mixing process of the mural’s color and dust’s color

Let mural color Cb(Rb,Gb,Bb), dust color Cf(Rf,Gf,Bf), the transparence of Cf be X%, then the mixing color is:

RGB(160,168,171) + RGB(119,71,31) RGB(150,144,136)

25% Transparence


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Analogous Thinking Model

  • Multi-layer mural

  • This is the inner layer

  • not been oxygenated

  • after outer layer fell off

The same dynasty

and cave

The unoxygenated color element

provide the source knowledge for

analogous reasoning


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Reasoning Based on Experience Knowledge of the Dunhuang Artists and Researchers

The set of Dunhuang typical color of the Tang Dynasty:

Red

Yellow

Blue

Green

Brown

Gray

White

Golden


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Reasoning Based on Experience Knowledge of the Dunhuang Artists and Researchers

Color Region Obtaining

Color Layering

Edge Destination

Based on the set of typical color of Dunhuang


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Dunhuang Mural Color Virtual Restoration—Example of Color Faded Restoration

Refer the color well-protected mural image to restore

Source Image

Destination Image

Anology Reference


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Dunhuang Mural Color Virtual Restoration—Example of Color Faded Restoration

According to the Chemical Color Gradually Changing Rule to restore

Source Image

Destination Image

Chemical Color Gradually Changing Rule


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Dunhuang Mural Color Virtual Restoration—Example of Color Faded Restoration

Integrating Color

Faded Restoration

and Color Changed

Restoration

Source Image

Destination Image


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Dunhuang Mural Color Virtual Restoration—Example of Color Faded Restoration

Using Created Pattern to restore faded region

Destination Image

Source Image

Created Pattern


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Demo3: Dunhuang Mural Color Changing Process


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Thanks!


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