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Chapter 3 Teacher Planning. EDUC 2300 Introduction to Teaching. Planning is vital to teaching. Teachers estimate they spend between 10% and 20% of their working time each week on planning activities.

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Chapter 3 teacher planning

Chapter 3 Teacher Planning

EDUC 2300

Introduction to Teaching


  • Planning is vital to teaching.

  • Teachers estimate they spend between 10% and 20% of their working time each week on planning activities.

  • Teacher planning is a major determinant of what is taught in schools. The curriculum as published is transformed and adapted in the planning process by additions, deletions, interpretations, and by teacher decisions about pace, sequence, and emphasis.



This perspective puts the focus on goals and objectives as the first step in a sequential process.

Rational-Linear Planning Model

Goals

Actions

Outcomes


Outcomes

Goals

Actions


Consequences of planning
Consequences of Planning has been challenged.

  • Duchastel and Brown (1974) were interested in the effects of instructional objectives on student learning.

  • After much research, Duchastel and Brown concluded that learning objectives have a focusing effect on students, which leads to the recommendation that teachers make students aware of the objectives they have for the lessons.


  • On the other hand, the researchers caution teachers to be careful because the study also illustrated how focusing too much on objectives may limit other important student learning.

  • John Zahorik (1970), working about the same time as Duchastel and Brown, was interested in the effects of planning on teacher behavior, particularly planning behaviors associated with identifying objectives, diagnosing student learning, and choosing instructional strategies.


  • He wanted to find out if teachers who planned lessons were less sensitive to students in the classroom than teachers who did not plan.

  • After his study with twelve fourth grade teachers, Dr. Zahorik found significant difference between teachers who had planned and those who had not planned.

  • Teachers who planned were less sensitive to the student ideas and appeared to pursue their own goals regardless of what the students thought or were saying.


  • Conversely, teachers who had not planned displayed a higher number of verbal behaviors that encouraged and developed student ideas.

  • Zahorik concluded that goal-based planning may inhibit teachers from being sensitive to students as they could be.

  • However, elimination of planning might “also bring about completely random and unproductive learning.”


  • Both number of verbal behaviors that encouraged and developed student ideas.Duchastel and Brown and the Zahorik studies are interesting, because together they show the importance of goal-based planning; but they also warn that the type of planning can lead to unanticipated consequences that are not always desirable.

  • To resolve this dilemma, Zahorik recommends that teachers establish goals that focus on their own behavior.


Consequences of Clear Instructional number of verbal behaviors that encouraged and developed student ideas.

Goals and Objectives

Instructional Goals and Objectives

Provide means to assess student learning

Provide focus and instructional intents to students

Result in smoothly running classrooms

Provide direction for instructional process


Planning and the beginning teacher
Planning and the Beginning Teacher number of verbal behaviors that encouraged and developed student ideas.

  • Housner and Griffey (1985) were interested in comparing differences in planning and decision making of experienced and inexperienced teachers. They studied sixteen physical education teacher candidates. Eight of the teachers had more than five years of experience. The other eight were pre-service teachers training to be Physical Education teachers.


  • Housner and Griffey number of verbal behaviors that encouraged and developed student ideas. concluded:

    • Experience teachers planned ahead for more adaptations that might be needed in a lesson as it got underway and were more concerned than inexperienced teachers with establishing rules for activities and means for giving students feedback.

    • Inexperienced teachers devoted a larger percentage of their planning to verbal instruction.


  • The experienced teachers were more attentive to student performance, whereas inexperienced teachers attended most often to student interest and were more interested in keeping the class on task.

  • Unlike other acts of teaching, most teacher planning occurs in private places, such as the teacher’s home or office.

  • By their very nature, planning and decision making are mental, non observable activities.


Planning and the Instructional Cycle performance, whereas inexperienced teachers attended most often to student interest and were more interested in keeping the class on task.

  • Teacher planning is a multifaceted and ongoing process that covers almost everything teachers do.

  • Some aspects of planning precede instruction and , in turn, precede assessment of student learning.

  • The whole planning process is cyclical.


Planning and the instructional cycle
Planning and the Instructional Cycle performance, whereas inexperienced teachers attended most often to student interest and were more interested in keeping the class on task.

Planning prior to instruction

Assessing

Instructing


  • Assessment performance, whereas inexperienced teachers attended most often to student interest and were more interested in keeping the class on task. information influences the teacher’s next set of plans, the instruction that follows, and so on.

  • For example, choosing content can only be done aftercareful analysis and inquiry into students’ prior knowledge, the teacher’s understanding of the subject matter, and the nature of the subject itself.


The time spans of planning
The Time Spans of Planning performance, whereas inexperienced teachers attended most often to student interest and were more interested in keeping the class on task.

  • Robert Yinger (1980) conducted an interesting and important study that provides the most definitive study of one first and second-grade elementary school teacher in Michigan.

  • Using participant observation methods, he spent forty full days over a five-month period observing and recording the teacher’s activities



The specifics of planning
The Specifics of Planning spans that characterized teacher planning:

  • Choosing Curriculum Content and Skills

    • The curriculum in most elementary and secondary schools is currently organized around the academic disciplines—history, biology, mathematics, and so forth—used by scholars to organize information about the social and physical world.


  • Consequently, an important planning task for teachers will continue to be choosing the most appropriate content from the various subject matter areas for a particular group of students.

  • This is no small feat, because there is already much more to teach on any topic than time allows, and new knowledge is being produced every day.


  • Beginning teachers are often bewildered about where content comes from and the role teachers play in selecting it.

  • In today’s schools, deciding what to teach is no longer done by teachers independently. Instead, what to teach decisions are influenced by many factors, some of which are described in the next figure.


Learned society standards comes from and the role teachers play in selecting it.

State curriculum frameworks and standards

Community values

What is taught in Schools

Local curriculum frameworks and guides

Schoolwide curriculum agreements


The role of standards
The Role of Standards comes from and the role teachers play in selecting it.

  • Until the past and two decades, the terms goals and objectives were used to specify what students were to learn. However, over the past two decades, the term standards has been more commonly accepted to express important learning outcomes.


  • This change has been in response to the emergence of standards-based education, a response to the same set of beliefs as those that influenced the larger accountability movement, namely…

    • That student achievement has slipped from earlier times and that only by requiring (or encouraging) teachers to teach toward a required set of standards will the situation improve.



  • A expectations for particular low-income and minority students also have encouraged standards setting in the hopes that the result will be high expectations for all students (Landsman 2004).standard is a statement about what students should know and be able to do. Normally they are written at a level of abstraction so they can be delineated more precisely into measurable terms.

  • Standards come from nay sources, but those developed by learned societies and by state departments of education have been the standards that have been most prevalent and important.


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