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Chapter Three WORK-RELATED ATTITUDES: FEELINGS ABOUT JOBS, ORGANIZATIONS, AND PEOPLE Attitudes - relatively stable clusters of feelings, beliefs, and behavioral intentions toward specific objects, people, or institutions

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Chapter

Three

WORK-RELATED ATTITUDES:

FEELINGS ABOUT JOBS, ORGANIZATIONS,

AND PEOPLE


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Attitudes - relatively stable clusters of feelings, beliefs, and behavioral intentions toward specific objects, people, or institutions

Work-related attitudes - pertain to any aspect of work or work settings


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Three Essential Components of Attitudes -ABC Model

Affect or emotional component- our liking or

disliking of any particular person, item, or event

- feeling aspect

Behavioral component - our predisposition to

behave in a way consistent with our beliefs and

feelings about an object

- may not be predictive of one’s

behavior

Cognitive component - what we believe, whether

true of false, about an attitude object

- knowledge aspect


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  • Attitude Formation- attitudes are learned

  • Influences:

  • Direct Experience

  • Social Learning


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Job Satisfaction - positive or negative attitudes held by

individuals toward their jobs

Are People Generally Satisfied with Their Jobs? - overall,

most satisfied

Certain groups more satisfied than others -

white-collar, older, more experienced

Some individuals always more satisfied

Dispositional model - job satisfaction is a

characteristic that stays with people across situations


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Measuring Job Satisfaction - several useful techniques have been

developed

Rating scales and questionnaires - most common approach

Critical incidents - employees describe incidents they found satisfying or dissatisfying

Interviews - explore attitudes more deeply

- particularly effective in gathering reactions to complex

and difficult situations


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Theories of Job Satisfaction - address what makes people satisfied

with their jobs and the underlying processes

Two-factor theory -satisfaction and dissatisfaction stem from

different groups of variables

- satisfaction - job content

- dissatisfaction - physical and social aspect

Value theory - job satisfaction depends on the match between the outcomes individuals value in their jobs


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Consequences of Job Dissatisfaction:

Employee withdrawal - actions that enable employees to escape

adverse organizational situations due to less satisfaction

Chronic absenteeism

Voluntary turnover


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Guidelines for Promoting Job Satisfaction

Make jobs fun

Pay people fairly

Match people to jobs that fit their interests

Avoid boring, repetitive jobs


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Organizational Commitment - degree to which people are involved

with their organizations and are interested in remaining within them

Varieties of Organizational Commitment:

Continuance commitment

Affective commitment

Normative commitment


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Why Strive for a Committed Workforce?

Committed employees are less likely to withdraw

Committed employees are willing to sacrifice for the organization

Approaches to Developing Committed Employees

Enrich jobs - give employees control over their jobs and recognize

their important contributions

Align company and employee interests

Profit-sharing plans - incentive plans in which employees

receive bonuses in proportion to the company’s

profitability

Recruit and select new employees whose values closely match

those of the organization

- investments in employees likely to prompt the return

investment of employee energy in the company


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