Individual Differences and Work Behavior
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Individual Differences and Work Behavior







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Chapter. 3. Individual Differences and Work Behavior. Why Individual Differences Are Important: (1 of 2). Individual differences have a direct effect on behavior People who perceive things differently behave differently People with different attitudes respond differently to directives
Individual Differences and Work Behavior

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Slide 2

Chapter

3

Individual Differences and Work Behavior

Slide 3

Why Individual Differences Are Important: (1 of 2)

  • Individual differences have a direct effect on behavior

    • People who perceive things differently behave differently

    • People with different attitudes respond differently to directives

    • People with different personalities interact differently with bosses, coworkers, subordinates, and customers

Slide 4

Why Individual Differences Are Important: (2 of 2)

  • Individual differences help explain:

    • Why some people embrace change and others are fearful of it

    • Why some employees will be productive only if they are closely supervised, while others will be productive if they are not

    • Why some workers learn new tasks more effectively than others

Slide 5

Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle(1 of 3)

  • Different people are attracted to different careers and organizations as a function of their own:

    • abilities

    • interests

    • personalities

Slide 6

Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle(2 of 3)

  • Organizations select employees on the basis of the needs the organization has

    • skills and abilities

    • individual attributes such as values and personality

Slide 7

Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle(3 of 3)

  • Attrition occurs when:

    • individuals discover they do not like being part of the organization and elect to resign, or

    • the organization determines an individual is not succeeding and elects to terminate

Slide 8

Each phase of the ASA cycle is significantly influenced by the individual differences of each person

Slide 9

Effective managerial practice requires that individual behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

Slide 10

Individual Differences in the Workplace

Individual Differences

Personality

Perception

Ability and Skills

Attitudes

Work Behavior

  • Productivity

  • Creativity

  • Performance

Slide 11

The Basis for Understanding Work Behavior:

  • To understand individual differences a manager must:

    1. observe and recognize the differences

    and

    2. study relationships between variables that influence behavior

Slide 12

Individual Differences Influencing Work Behavior:

Personality

Hereditary and

Diversity

Factors

Attitudes

Perception

Ability and

Skills

Slide 13

Primary Dimensions (stable)

Age

Ethnicity

Gender

Physical attributes

Race

Sexual / affectional orientation

Secondary Dimensions (changeable)

Educational background

Marital status

Religious beliefs

Health

Work experience

Diversity Factors

Slide 14

Sex Differences in Management:Selected Results(1 of 2)

Slide 15

Sex Differences in Management:Selected Results(2 of 2)

Slide 16

Abilities and Skills

  • Ability – a person’s talent to perform a mental or physical task

  • Skill – a learned talent that a person has acquired to perform a task

Key Abilities

Mental Ability

Emotional Intelligence

Tacit Knowledge

Slide 17

Attitudes

  • Are determinates of behavior because they are linked with perception, personality, feelings, and motivation

  • Attitude – a mental state of readiness

    • learned and organized through experience

    • exerting a specific response to people, objects, and situations with which it is related

Slide 18

Attitudes: Implications for the Manager

  • Attitudes are learned

  • Attitudes define one’s predispositions toward given aspects of the world

  • Attitudes provide the emotional basis of one’s interpersonal relations and identification with others

  • Attitudes are organized and are close to the core of personality

Slide 19

The Three Components of Attitudes: Cognition, Affect, Behavior

Stimuli

Manager style

Technology

Noise

Peers

Reward system

Compensation plan

Career opportunities

Work environment factors

Beliefs and values

“My supervisor is unfair.”

Cognition

“Having a fair supervisor is important to me.”

Feelings and emotions

Affect

“I don’t like my supervisor.”

Intended behavior

“I’ve submitted a formal request to transfer.”

Behavior

Slide 20

Cognition

  • What individuals know about themselves and their environment

  • Implies a conscious process of acquiring knowledge

  • Evaluative beliefs – favorable or unfavorable impressions that a person holds toward an object or person

Slide 21

Affect

  • The emotional component of an attitude

  • Often learned from

    • parents

    • teachers

    • peer group members

  • The part of an attitude that is associated with “feeling” a certain way about a person, group, or situation

Slide 22

Cognitive Dissonance

  • A discrepancy between attitudes and behaviors

  • A mental state of anxiety

  • Occurs when there is a conflict among an individual’s various cognitions after a decision has been made

Slide 23

Changing Attitudes

The Communicator

The Message

The Situation

Slide 24

How to Increase Your Effectiveness in Changing Attitudes: (1 of 2)

  • Concentrate on gradually changing the attitude over a period of time

  • Identify the beliefs or values that are part of the attitude and provide the attitude holder with information that will alter those beliefs or values

Slide 25

How to Increase Your Effectiveness in Changing Attitudes: (2 of 2)

  • Make the setting (in which the attempted change occurs) as pleasant and enjoyable as possible

  • Identify reasons that changing the attitude is to the advantage of the attitude holder

Slide 26

Job satisfaction – an attitude people have about their jobs

Results from people’s perception of their jobs

Results from the degree of fit between the individual and the organization

Key factors associated with job satisfaction:

Pay

Promotion opportunities

Supervision

Coworkers

Working conditions

Job security

Attitudes and Job Satisfaction

Slide 27

Satisfaction-Performance Relationships:Three Views

Causes

“The satisfied worker is more productive.”

Job Performance

1. Job Satisfaction

Causes

“The more productive worker is satisfied.”

Job Satisfaction

2. Job Performance

Perceived Equity

Rewards

Job Satisfaction

3. Job Performance

Slide 28

Personality

  • A relatively stable set of feelings and behaviors that have been significantly formed by genetic and environmental factors

  • The relationship between behavior and personality is one of the most complex matters that managers have to understand

Slide 29

Some Major Forces Influencing Personality

Cultural forces

Individual Personality

Social class / group membership forces

Hereditary forces

Family relationship forces

Slide 30

Personality and Behavior in Organizations

Locus of Control

The Big Five

Personality

Dimensions

Creativity

Self-efficacy

Slide 31

The Big Five Personality Dimensions

Extroversion

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

Emotional Stability

Openness to Experience

Slide 32

Locus of Control

  • Locus of control of individuals –

    • Determines the degree to which they believe their behaviors influence what happens to them

    • Internals – believe they are masters of their own fate

    • Externals – believe they are helpless pawns of fate, success is due to luck or ease of task

Slide 33

Self-Efficacy

  • Feelings of self-efficacy have managerial and organizational implications:

    • Selection decisions

    • Training programs

    • Goal setting and performance

Slide 34

How to Develop Employee Creativity

  • Encourage everyone to view old problems from new perspectives

  • Make certain people know that it is OK to make mistakes

  • Provide as many people with as many new work experiences as you can

  • Set an example in your own approach to dealing with problems and opportunities


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