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Chapter. 3. Individual Differences and Work Behavior. Why Individual Differences Are Important: (1 of 2). Individual differences have a direct effect on behavior People who perceive things differently behave differently People with different attitudes respond differently to directives

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Individual differences and work behavior

Chapter

3

Individual Differences and Work Behavior


Why individual differences are important 1 of 2
Why Individual Differences Are Important: (1 of 2)

  • Individual differences have a direct effect on behavior

    • People who perceive things differently behave differently

    • People with different attitudes respond differently to directives

    • People with different personalities interact differently with bosses, coworkers, subordinates, and customers


Why individual differences are important 2 of 2
Why Individual Differences Are Important: (2 of 2)

  • Individual differences help explain:

    • Why some people embrace change and others are fearful of it

    • Why some employees will be productive only if they are closely supervised, while others will be productive if they are not

    • Why some workers learn new tasks more effectively than others


Attraction selection attrition asa cycle 1 of 3
Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle(1 of 3)

  • Different people are attracted to different careers and organizations as a function of their own:

    • abilities

    • interests

    • personalities


Attraction selection attrition asa cycle 2 of 3
Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle(2 of 3)

  • Organizations select employees on the basis of the needs the organization has

    • skills and abilities

    • individual attributes such as values and personality


Attraction selection attrition asa cycle 3 of 3
Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle(3 of 3)

  • Attrition occurs when:

    • individuals discover they do not like being part of the organization and elect to resign, or

    • the organization determines an individual is not succeeding and elects to terminate


Each phase of the ASA cycle is significantly influenced by the individual differences of each person


Effective managerial practice requires that individual behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.


Individual differences in the workplace
Individual Differences in the Workplace behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

Individual Differences

Personality

Perception

Ability and Skills

Attitudes

Work Behavior

  • Productivity

  • Creativity

  • Performance


The basis for understanding work behavior
The Basis for Understanding Work Behavior: behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

  • To understand individual differences a manager must:

    1. observe and recognize the differences

    and

    2. study relationships between variables that influence behavior


Individual differences influencing work behavior
Individual Differences Influencing Work Behavior: behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

Personality

Hereditary and

Diversity

Factors

Attitudes

Perception

Ability and

Skills


Diversity factors

Primary Dimensions (stable) behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

Age

Ethnicity

Gender

Physical attributes

Race

Sexual / affectional orientation

Secondary Dimensions (changeable)

Educational background

Marital status

Religious beliefs

Health

Work experience

Diversity Factors


Sex differences in management selected results 1 of 2
Sex Differences in Management: behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.Selected Results(1 of 2)


Sex differences in management selected results 2 of 2
Sex Differences in Management: behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.Selected Results(2 of 2)


Abilities and skills
Abilities and Skills behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

  • Ability – a person’s talent to perform a mental or physical task

  • Skill – a learned talent that a person has acquired to perform a task

Key Abilities

Mental Ability

Emotional Intelligence

Tacit Knowledge


Attitudes
Attitudes behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

  • Are determinates of behavior because they are linked with perception, personality, feelings, and motivation

  • Attitude – a mental state of readiness

    • learned and organized through experience

    • exerting a specific response to people, objects, and situations with which it is related


Attitudes implications for the manager
Attitudes: behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.Implications for the Manager

  • Attitudes are learned

  • Attitudes define one’s predispositions toward given aspects of the world

  • Attitudes provide the emotional basis of one’s interpersonal relations and identification with others

  • Attitudes are organized and are close to the core of personality


The Three Components of Attitudes: behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.Cognition, Affect, Behavior

Stimuli

Manager style

Technology

Noise

Peers

Reward system

Compensation plan

Career opportunities

Work environment factors

Beliefs and values

“My supervisor is unfair.”

Cognition

“Having a fair supervisor is important to me.”

Feelings and emotions

Affect

“I don’t like my supervisor.”

Intended behavior

“I’ve submitted a formal request to transfer.”

Behavior


Cognition
Cognition behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

  • What individuals know about themselves and their environment

  • Implies a conscious process of acquiring knowledge

  • Evaluative beliefs – favorable or unfavorable impressions that a person holds toward an object or person


Affect
Affect behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

  • The emotional component of an attitude

  • Often learned from

    • parents

    • teachers

    • peer group members

  • The part of an attitude that is associated with “feeling” a certain way about a person, group, or situation


Cognitive dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

  • A discrepancy between attitudes and behaviors

  • A mental state of anxiety

  • Occurs when there is a conflict among an individual’s various cognitions after a decision has been made


Changing attitudes
Changing Attitudes behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

The Communicator

The Message

The Situation


How to increase your effectiveness in changing attitudes 1 of 2
How to Increase Your Effectiveness in Changing Attitudes: behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.(1 of 2)

  • Concentrate on gradually changing the attitude over a period of time

  • Identify the beliefs or values that are part of the attitude and provide the attitude holder with information that will alter those beliefs or values


How to increase your effectiveness in changing attitudes 2 of 2
How to Increase Your Effectiveness in Changing Attitudes: behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.(2 of 2)

  • Make the setting (in which the attempted change occurs) as pleasant and enjoyable as possible

  • Identify reasons that changing the attitude is to the advantage of the attitude holder


Attitudes and job satisfaction

Job satisfaction – behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior. an attitude people have about their jobs

Results from people’s perception of their jobs

Results from the degree of fit between the individual and the organization

Key factors associated with job satisfaction:

Pay

Promotion opportunities

Supervision

Coworkers

Working conditions

Job security

Attitudes and Job Satisfaction


Satisfaction performance relationships three views
Satisfaction-Performance Relationships: behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.Three Views

Causes

“The satisfied worker is more productive.”

Job Performance

1. Job Satisfaction

Causes

“The more productive worker is satisfied.”

Job Satisfaction

2. Job Performance

Perceived Equity

Rewards

Job Satisfaction

3. Job Performance


Personality
Personality behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

  • A relatively stable set of feelings and behaviors that have been significantly formed by genetic and environmental factors

  • The relationship between behavior and personality is one of the most complex matters that managers have to understand


Some major forces influencing personality
Some Major Forces Influencing Personality behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

Cultural forces

Individual Personality

Social class / group membership forces

Hereditary forces

Family relationship forces


Personality and behavior in organizations
Personality and Behavior in Organizations behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

Locus of Control

The Big Five

Personality

Dimensions

Creativity

Self-efficacy


The big five personality dimensions
The Big Five Personality Dimensions behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

Extroversion

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

Emotional Stability

Openness to Experience


Locus of control
Locus of Control behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

  • Locus of control of individuals –

    • Determines the degree to which they believe their behaviors influence what happens to them

    • Internals – believe they are masters of their own fate

    • Externals – believe they are helpless pawns of fate, success is due to luck or ease of task


Self efficacy
Self-Efficacy behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

  • Feelings of self-efficacy have managerial and organizational implications:

    • Selection decisions

    • Training programs

    • Goal setting and performance


How to develop employee creativity
How to Develop Employee Creativity behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior.

  • Encourage everyone to view old problems from new perspectives

  • Make certain people know that it is OK to make mistakes

  • Provide as many people with as many new work experiences as you can

  • Set an example in your own approach to dealing with problems and opportunities


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