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Emergency Response American Red Cross Instructor: Joel Bass MS ATC. 1995 USDOT First Responder Curriculum. Cardiac Emergencies II. Cardiac Arrest. What is cardiac arrest? When the heart stops beating or beats too irregularly or too weakly to circulate blood effectively.

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Emergency ResponseAmerican Red Cross Instructor: Joel Bass MS ATC

1995 USDOT First Responder Curriculum



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Cardiac Arrest

  • What is cardiac arrest?

    • When the heart stops beating or beats too irregularly or too weakly to circulate blood effectively.

  • What are some causes of cardiac arrest?

    • Drowning

    • Suffocation

    • Electrocution

    • Respiratory arrest

    • Poisoning

    • Allergic reactions

    • Stroke

  • A victim in cardiac arrest is unconscious, not breathing, and without a pulse.


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CPRCardiopulmonary Resuscitation

  • CPR is only effective for short periods of time

  • The effectiveness decreases the longer you are performing CPR.

  • The majority of victims in cardiac arrest need early defibrillation to have the best chance for survival.

  • CPR extends the time in which defibrillation will be successful.

  • Victims of cardiac arrest do not often survive, even in the best situations.

  • Video(Adult CPR)


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When to Stop CPR

  • Another trained rescuer takes over

  • You are too exhausted to continue

  • Victim’s heart starts beating

  • Scene becomes unsafe

  • A defibrillator is available with trained user present

  • You are presented with valid DNR order

  • Advanced medical personnel order you to discontinue.


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Skill Practice: Adult CPR

  • Bring your skill sheets to the practice area

  • Find a partner

  • Use manikins

  • Practice CPR, beginning with the initial assessment.



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Cardiac Emergencies in Infants and Children

  • Children and infants often suffer a respiratory emergency that results in a cardiac emergency.

  • Ways to prevent cardiac emergencies in children

    • Prevent injuries leading to cardiac emergencies

    • Proper medical care

    • Recognize early signs of respiratory emergency

      • Agitation

      • Drowsiness

      • Change in skin color

      • Increased difficulty breathing

      • Increased heart and breathing rates

  • Video(Child CPR)


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Skill Practice: Child CPR

  • Bring your skill sheets to the practice area

  • Find a partner

  • Use manikins

  • Practice CPR, beginning with the initial assessment.


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Infant CPR

  • Video (Infant CPR)

  • Infant Two-Rescuer CPR

    • One rescuer places his or her thumbs next to each other on top of the infant’s sternum 2 finger’s width below nipple line and then wraps hands around the infant’s body.


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Skill Practice: Infant CPR

  • Bring your skill sheets to the practice area

  • Find a partner

  • Use manikins

  • Practice CPR, beginning with the initial assessment.




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Two-Rescuer Adult CPR

  • Video (Two-Rescuer CPR)

  • Compression to breathing remains 15 to 2

  • First rescuer does an initial assessment and the second rescuer gets into position to give compressions

  • When changing positions, stay on the same side

  • When CPR is in progress by one rescuer and a second arrives, that rescuer should ask whether advanced medical personnel have been summoned.


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Skill Practice: Two-Rescuer Adult CPR

  • Bring your skill sheets to the practice area

  • Find a partner

  • Use manikins

  • Practice CPR, beginning with the initial assessment.



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Automated External Defibrillators: Improving Survival or Cardiac Arrest

  • Video (AED Defibrillators)

  • Operating an AED

    • Confirm cardiac arrest

    • Turn on device

    • Attach device to victim

    • Analyze rhythm

    • Deliver shock, if indicated


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Precautions for Using an AED Cardiac Arrest

  • Do not clean chest with alcohol pads.

  • Stand clear of victim when analyzing and defibrillating

  • Do not analyze or defibrillate in moving vehicle.

  • Do not defibrillate in water

  • Do not defibrillate on metal surface

  • Do not defibrillate victim less that 8 years old

  • Do not defibrillate victim less than 55 pounds

  • Remove any nitroglycerin patches from victim before defibrillation


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Skill Practice: Using an AED Cardiac Arrest

  • Bring your skill sheets to the practice area

  • Find a partner

  • Use manikins and an AED

  • Practice using an AED, beginning with the initial assessment.


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10 Minute Break Cardiac Arrest


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Putting It All Together Cardiac Arrest


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