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CHARLES EDWARD IVES October 20, 1874 - May 19, 1954 bound by a common cause for modern music determined to extend beyond the rigidity of tradition free American music from European domination recognition began with a performance in 1939 of the “Concord Sonata” by John Kirkpatrick in Town Hall

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CHARLES EDWARD IVESOctober 20, 1874 - May 19, 1954

  • bound by a common cause for modern music
  • determined to extend beyond the rigidity of tradition
  • free American music from European domination
  • recognition began with a performance in 1939 of the “Concord Sonata” by John Kirkpatrick in Town Hall
  • received the Pulitzer Prize (1947) following a performance in 1946 of his “Third Symphony”, conducted by Lou Harrison•
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CHARLES EDWARD IVESOctober 20, 1874 - May 19, 1954

  • performances are now given by the great orchestras of the world
  • Ives believed that man and nature together could transcend the pettiness of the materialists and the politicians of the world•
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CHARLES EDWARD IVESMemos

  • I played in my father’s brass band
  • . . .in testing the divisions of the tone, father tried: the slide cornet, glasses for very small intervals. . .
  • George Ives
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CHARLES EDWARD IVESMUSIC 1911 - 1920

Three Places in New England

  • Orchestral Set No. 1
  • New England Symphony
  • full score completed in 1914
  • Nicholas Slonimsky asked Ives in 1929
  • premiered by the Boston Chamber Orchestra 1/10/31 at Town Hall in New York
  • Slonimsky’s orchestra was very small with only 13 strings
  • Ives was in attendance•
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CHARLES EDWARD IVESMUSIC 1911 - 1920

Three Places in New England

  • The “Saint-Gaudens” in Boston Common
  • a bas-relief sculpture by Agustus Saint-Gaudens from the 1890’s as a monument to Colonel Robert Gould Shaw and the 54th Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry - the first black regiment in the Union Army.
  • the monument is on the Boston Common across from the State House
  • Ives expresses his deep feeling for the oppression faced by the men of the regiment
  • Ives wrote a verse in tribute (read)•
the saint gaudens in boston common
The “Saint-Gaudens” in Boston Common
  • Moving-Marching-Faces of Souls!Marked with a generation of pain,Part freers of a Destiny,Slowly, restlessly swaying us on with youTowards other Freedom!. . .
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CHARLES EDWARD IVESMUSIC 1920 - 1954

  • Ives nusually did not attended performances of his own works
  • May 1954 - recovering from a minor operation but suddenly suffered a stroke and died in New York on May 19, 1954•
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CHARLES EDWARD IVESSTYLES

  • manuscripts given to the Library of the Yale School of Music in 1956 by Mrs. Ives
  • continually altered sketches, adding dissonance
  • had a genius for melodic variation
  • quoted over 150 tunes
  • regarded the cultivation of personal idioms as a limitation
  • the lasting worth of his music may still lie in the future
  • sonatas and symphonies are part of the European - American mainstream•
the indianist movement
The “INDIANIST” MOVEMENT
  • flourished from 1880s to 1920s
  • nourished by 19th c. Romanticism and such writers as: Cooper and Longfellow
  • 1888 - American Folklore Society founded to collect the remains of the vanishing American Folklore
  • 1880 - Theodore Baker transcribed some songs of the Iroquois, Cheyenne, Comanche, Dakota, Iowa, Kiowa and Ponca
the indianist movement10
The “INDIANIST” MOVEMENT
  • 1882 - Baker publishes his dissertation at the University of Leipzig (in German and never translated into English)
  • 1894 - Edward MacDowell takes themes for his Second (Indian) Suite, Op. 48 from Baker’s dissertation
  • 1892-1895 - Dvorak tells American composers how to create a “National” music
  • 1889-1890 - J. Walter Fewkes becomes the first to use the phonograph for recording Indian music and speech (Passamaquoddy of Maine in the winter of89-90)
the indianist movement and arthur farwell
The“INDIANIST” MOVEMENTand Arthur Farwell
  • Arthur Farwell (1872-1952)
  • proposed music that would include:” ragtime, Negro songs, Indian songs, Cowboy songs, and. . .new and daring expressions of our own composers. . .”
  • studied electrical engineering at MIT
  • became a composer after completing his degree at MIT
  • studied in Boston, Germany and Paris
indianist movement arthur farwell
“INDIANIST” MOVEMENTArthur Farwell
  • returned to the United States in 1899
  • founded the Wa-Wan Press in 1901 (named after a tribal ceremony of the Omahas)
  • published works of young American composers
  • published until 1911
the indianist movement and arthur farwell13
The “INDIANIST” MOVEMENTand Arthur Farwell
  • Three Indian Songs, Op. 32:
    • Song of the Deathless Voice;
    • Inketunga’s Thunder Song;
    • The Old Man’s Love Song
  • The Old Man’s Love Song, Op. 102, No. 2
  • Navajo War Dance, Op. 102, No. 1
  • Navajo War Dance, for piano
  • Pawnee Horses, for piano
william grant still 1895 1978
WILLIAM GRANT STILL1895-1978
  • the “Father” figure in American Black music
  • first Black composer to be extensively published
  • represents the “Harlem Renaissance” by elevating folk material
  • born in Woodville, Miss.
  • lived in Little Rock, attended Wilberforce College
  • heard an orchestra for the first time at Oberlin
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WILLIAM GRANT STILL1895-1978

  • worked for W.C. Handy
  • played oboe for Eubie Blake’s “Shuffle Along”
  • studied composition with George Whitefield Chadwick and Edgard Varese
  • wrote jazz arrangements for Artie Shaw and Paul Whiteman
  • a close friend of Howard Hanson, Leopold Stokowski and George Gershwin (who consulted him on matters of orchestration)
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WILLIAM GRANT STILL1895-1978

  • 1930 completes his (now) best known work: Symphony No. 1 (Afro-American)
  • this became the first symphony by a Black American composer to be performed by a major American orchestra in the United States
  • the premiere in 1931 was by the Rochester Philharmonic under the direction of Howard Hanson
  • the New York premiere was by the NY Philharmonic in 1935 in Carnegie Hall
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WILLIAM GRANT STILL1895-1978

  • Still said: “I knew I wanted to write a symphony; I knew it had to be an American work; and I wanted to demonstrate how the blues, so often considered a lowly expression, could be elevated to the highest musical level.”
  • each of the four movements is titled:
  • Moderato assai (Longings)
  • Adagio (Sorrows)
  • Animato (Humor)
  • Lento, con risoluzione (Aspirations)
the duke
The Duke
  • His gift lay in the inspiration he shared with his musicians
  • He composed and arranged for particular instrumental voices
  • He thought of musical textures in terms of colors
the 1960s
the 1960s
  • Probing different musical areas
    • suites with various themes
      • “Harlem”
      • “The River”
  • The River
    • composed in 1970
    • an imaginary journey down the river beginning at the “Giggling Rapids”, passing through “The Lake”, and ending at “The Vortex”
    • “Meander” from “The River”
the last days
The Last Days
  • Played with the greats - Louis Armstrong, Count Basie
  • Became obsessed with music
  • lung cancer
  • sacred concerts (3)
  • Worked in the hospital
    • Opera “Queenie Pie”
  • Died on May 24, 1974
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