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bound by a common cause for modern music determined to extend beyond the rigidity of tradition free American music from European domination PowerPoint PPT Presentation

CHARLES EDWARD IVES October 20, 1874 - May 19, 1954 bound by a common cause for modern music determined to extend beyond the rigidity of tradition free American music from European domination recognition began with a performance in 1939 of the “Concord Sonata” by John Kirkpatrick in Town Hall

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bound by a common cause for modern music determined to extend beyond the rigidity of tradition free American music from European domination

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CHARLES EDWARD IVESOctober 20, 1874 - May 19, 1954

  • bound by a common cause for modern music

  • determined to extend beyond the rigidity of tradition

  • free American music from European domination

  • recognition began with a performance in 1939 of the “Concord Sonata” by John Kirkpatrick in Town Hall

  • received the Pulitzer Prize (1947) following a performance in 1946 of his “Third Symphony”, conducted by Lou Harrison•


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CHARLES EDWARD IVESOctober 20, 1874 - May 19, 1954

  • performances are now given by the great orchestras of the world

  • Ives believed that man and nature together could transcend the pettiness of the materialists and the politicians of the world•


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CHARLES EDWARD IVESMemos

  • I played in my father’s brass band

  • . . .in testing the divisions of the tone, father tried: the slide cornet, glasses for very small intervals. . .

  • George Ives


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CHARLES EDWARD IVESMUSIC 1911 - 1920

Three Places in New England

  • Orchestral Set No. 1

  • New England Symphony

  • full score completed in 1914

  • Nicholas Slonimsky asked Ives in 1929

  • premiered by the Boston Chamber Orchestra 1/10/31 at Town Hall in New York

  • Slonimsky’s orchestra was very small with only 13 strings

  • Ives was in attendance•


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CHARLES EDWARD IVESMUSIC 1911 - 1920

Three Places in New England

  • The “Saint-Gaudens” in Boston Common

  • a bas-relief sculpture by Agustus Saint-Gaudens from the 1890’s as a monument to Colonel Robert Gould Shaw and the 54th Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry - the first black regiment in the Union Army.

  • the monument is on the Boston Common across from the State House

  • Ives expresses his deep feeling for the oppression faced by the men of the regiment

  • Ives wrote a verse in tribute (read)•


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The “Saint-Gaudens” in Boston Common

  • Moving-Marching-Faces of Souls!Marked with a generation of pain,Part freers of a Destiny,Slowly, restlessly swaying us on with youTowards other Freedom!. . .


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CHARLES EDWARD IVESMUSIC 1920 - 1954

  • Ives nusually did not attended performances of his own works

  • May 1954 - recovering from a minor operation but suddenly suffered a stroke and died in New York on May 19, 1954•


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CHARLES EDWARD IVESSTYLES

  • manuscripts given to the Library of the Yale School of Music in 1956 by Mrs. Ives

  • continually altered sketches, adding dissonance

  • had a genius for melodic variation

  • quoted over 150 tunes

  • regarded the cultivation of personal idioms as a limitation

  • the lasting worth of his music may still lie in the future

  • sonatas and symphonies are part of the European - American mainstream•


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The “INDIANIST” MOVEMENT

  • flourished from 1880s to 1920s

  • nourished by 19th c. Romanticism and such writers as: Cooper and Longfellow

  • 1888 - American Folklore Society founded to collect the remains of the vanishing American Folklore

  • 1880 - Theodore Baker transcribed some songs of the Iroquois, Cheyenne, Comanche, Dakota, Iowa, Kiowa and Ponca


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The “INDIANIST” MOVEMENT

  • 1882 - Baker publishes his dissertation at the University of Leipzig (in German and never translated into English)

  • 1894 - Edward MacDowell takes themes for his Second (Indian) Suite, Op. 48 from Baker’s dissertation

  • 1892-1895 - Dvorak tells American composers how to create a “National” music

  • 1889-1890 - J. Walter Fewkes becomes the first to use the phonograph for recording Indian music and speech (Passamaquoddy of Maine in the winter of89-90)


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The“INDIANIST” MOVEMENTand Arthur Farwell

  • Arthur Farwell (1872-1952)

  • proposed music that would include:” ragtime, Negro songs, Indian songs, Cowboy songs, and. . .new and daring expressions of our own composers. . .”

  • studied electrical engineering at MIT

  • became a composer after completing his degree at MIT

  • studied in Boston, Germany and Paris


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“INDIANIST” MOVEMENTArthur Farwell

  • returned to the United States in 1899

  • founded the Wa-Wan Press in 1901 (named after a tribal ceremony of the Omahas)

  • published works of young American composers

  • published until 1911


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The “INDIANIST” MOVEMENTand Arthur Farwell

  • Three Indian Songs, Op. 32:

    • Song of the Deathless Voice;

    • Inketunga’s Thunder Song;

    • The Old Man’s Love Song

  • The Old Man’s Love Song, Op. 102, No. 2

  • Navajo War Dance, Op. 102, No. 1

  • Navajo War Dance, for piano

  • Pawnee Horses, for piano


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WILLIAM GRANT STILL1895-1978

  • the “Father” figure in American Black music

  • first Black composer to be extensively published

  • represents the “Harlem Renaissance” by elevating folk material

  • born in Woodville, Miss.

  • lived in Little Rock, attended Wilberforce College

  • heard an orchestra for the first time at Oberlin


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WILLIAM GRANT STILL1895-1978

  • worked for W.C. Handy

  • played oboe for Eubie Blake’s “Shuffle Along”

  • studied composition with George Whitefield Chadwick and Edgard Varese

  • wrote jazz arrangements for Artie Shaw and Paul Whiteman

  • a close friend of Howard Hanson, Leopold Stokowski and George Gershwin (who consulted him on matters of orchestration)


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WILLIAM GRANT STILL1895-1978

  • 1930 completes his (now) best known work: Symphony No. 1 (Afro-American)

  • this became the first symphony by a Black American composer to be performed by a major American orchestra in the United States

  • the premiere in 1931 was by the Rochester Philharmonic under the direction of Howard Hanson

  • the New York premiere was by the NY Philharmonic in 1935 in Carnegie Hall


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WILLIAM GRANT STILL1895-1978

  • Still said: “I knew I wanted to write a symphony; I knew it had to be an American work; and I wanted to demonstrate how the blues, so often considered a lowly expression, could be elevated to the highest musical level.”

  • each of the four movements is titled:

  • Moderato assai (Longings)

  • Adagio (Sorrows)

  • Animato (Humor)

  • Lento, con risoluzione (Aspirations)


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The Duke

  • His gift lay in the inspiration he shared with his musicians

  • He composed and arranged for particular instrumental voices

  • He thought of musical textures in terms of colors


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the 1960s

  • Probing different musical areas

    • suites with various themes

      • “Harlem”

      • “The River”

  • The River

    • composed in 1970

    • an imaginary journey down the river beginning at the “Giggling Rapids”, passing through “The Lake”, and ending at “The Vortex”

    • “Meander” from “The River”


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The Last Days

  • Played with the greats - Louis Armstrong, Count Basie

  • Became obsessed with music

  • lung cancer

  • sacred concerts (3)

  • Worked in the hospital

    • Opera “Queenie Pie”

  • Died on May 24, 1974


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