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Bacterial Ecology in Arthropod Digestive Tracts Casey Eisele Significance of Research Arthropods aid in ruminant digestion Little research has been conducted using arthropods Studies suggest that arthropods benefit from both enzymatic activity (cellulose degradation)

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Bacterial ecology in arthropod digestive tracts l.jpg

Bacterial Ecology in Arthropod Digestive Tracts

Casey Eisele


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Significance of Research

  • Arthropods aid in ruminant digestion

  • Little research has been conducted using arthropods

  • Studies suggest that arthropods benefit from both

    • enzymatic activity (cellulose degradation)

    • products of fermentation


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Within the guts of Arthropods

  • Microbes have been isolated from cockroaches, crickets, mealworms, desert millipedes, and scarab beetles

  • Normal flora

    • high ratio of microbes/biomass

    • attachment to endothelium

      • cockroaches: 100 species

      • crickets: 25 species


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Materials and Methods

  • Arthropods were sacrificed, sterilized and dissected

  • Bacteria was liberated from the lining of the gut using a dilute solution of EDTA and sonication

  • 1/10,000 dilutions were plated on

    • T Soy Agar

  • Isolated bacteria were used to inoculate

    • Phenol Red Broth

    • Lactate Broth

    • Cellulose plates and broth


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Results

  • Bacteria were isolated from all three arthropod species


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T Soy Agar (Periplaneta americana)

  • Isolated 5 species

    • Underestimation

    • Psychotolerant

Careful, they’re quick.


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T Soy Agar (Zophobas morio)

  • Isolated 2 species


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T Soy Agar (Acheta dometicus)

  • Isolated 2 species


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Populations and Diversity

Bacteria/Biomass

  • Weight of gut # of species

    • Cricket = 2mg 2

    • Mealworm =54mg 2

    • Cockroach =25mg >5

  • Bacteria/Biomass ratios confirmed the findings of Cazemier et al. and other studies

Bacterial Count

(1x10 ^5 cfu/mg)

Mealworm

Species


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1) Fermentation

Glycolytic Pathway

host/bacteriabacteria

Lactose (6 C) — —> Lactate (3 C) —> Pyruvate,Acetic Acid, Ethanol

Phenol red broth Lactate Broth

Biochemical Tests


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Results

  • Bacteria were isolated from all three arthropod species

  • 6 species fermented lactose


Glycolytic pathway l.jpg

Lactose —> Lactate —> Pyruvate/Acetic/Ethanol

Cockroach

Species 1 no

Species 2 proteolytic

Species 3

Species 4

Species 5

Mealworm

Species 6

Species 7

Cricket

Species 8

Species 9 proteolytic

Glycolytic Pathway


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Lactose Fermentation

lactose fermenters

control

proteolytic

proteolytic

cricket

mealworm

cockroach


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Results

  • Bacteria were isolated from all three arthropod species

  • 6 species fermented lactose

  • All Bacteria reduced lactate


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Glycolytic Pathway

Lactose —> Lactate —> Pyruvate/Acetic/Ethanol

  • Cockroach

    • Species 1 no

    • Species 2 proteolytic

    • Species 3

    • Species 4

    • Species 5

  • Mealworm

    • Species 6

    • Species 7

  • Cricket

    • Species 8

    • Species 9 proteolytic


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Biochemical Tests

  • 1) Fermentation

  • 2) Cellulose Degradation

    bacteria

    Cellulose —> Simple Sugars (6 C)

    Cellulose plate/broth


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Cellulose Degradation

  • Cellulose tests

    were inconclusive


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Conclusions

  • My study confirmed the presence of large bacterial populations living within the gut of arthropods

  • These bacteria exhibited the ability to ferment compounds, whose end-products may be used by the host for nutrition

  • Further testing would be needed to determine cellulose-degrading capabilities


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Acknowledgements

  • Thank You

    • Professor Rose

    • Professor Smith

    • Tony


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