arthropods PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Defining Characteristics. Segmented body planPaired, jointed appendagesExoskeleton/moltingInvertebrateBilateral symmetry. Segmentation. Most arthropods have three body segments:HeadThoraxAbdomenLegs/wings extend from thoraxAbdomen: digestion

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1. Arthropods

2. Defining Characteristics Segmented body plan Paired, jointed appendages Exoskeleton/molting Invertebrate Bilateral symmetry

3. Segmentation Most arthropods have three body segments: Head Thorax Abdomen Legs/wings extend from thorax Abdomen: digestion & respiration

4. Some (crustaceans, arachnids) have two segments: Cephalothorax Abdomen Cephalothorax: fusion of head and thorax

5. Head Characteristics Compound Eye: Simple eyes: Antennae Mouthparts

6. Compound Eyein Arthropods 1 pair Many lenses Color detection.

7. Simple Eyes in Arthropods Three – eight eyes One lens Used for light detection

8. Antennae Sense pheromones (scent trails, mating) Sense movement and sound

9. Mandibles Jaws Used for chewing Side to side movement

10. Jointed Appendages Provide flexibility Paired Led to success In diversity In numbers (3/4 of all animals are arthropods)

11. Appendage Anything which grows from the main body of an animal Limbs Antennae Wings Fins

12. Name the appendages and their function

13. Exo-skeleton Hard, thick outer covering Allows movement Waxy covering on some prevents water loss

14. Molting: shedding of exoskeleton Exoskeleton doesn’t grow Must be replaced several times How molting works: Animal contracts muscles Forces blood forward Body swells Old exoskeleton splits Animal climbs out Animal swallows air Body swells New exoskeleton hardens

15. Molting

16. Arthropod Digestion One way digestive system Most have mandibles (jaws) for chewing

17. Types of Arthropods Arachnids – spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks Crustaceans – shellfish (crabs, lobster) Horseshoe crabs Chilopoda – centipedes Diploda – millipedes Insecta - insects

18. Arachnids Spiders Scorpions Mites Ticks

19. Characteristics of Spiders Two body regions: Cephalothorax Abdomen Cephalothorax Abdomen

20. The Spider Body

21. Spiders: Simple eyes (6-8) but no compound eyes

22. Spiders - Appendages Six pairs jointed appendages 1st: chelicerae - pinchers/fangs 2nd: pedipalps – hold/capture food 3rd – 6th: legs - mobility

23. Chelicerae First pair of appendages End in fangs Wolf spider fangs

24. Pedipalps Capture and hold prey Carry sperm in males

25. How Spiders Eat No mandibles (no chewing) Hold prey and injects venom Venom digests prey outside body Spider sucks prey in like a milkshake

26. Hunting Strategies:Camouflage and ambush Crab Spiders

27. Hunting Strategies:Trapdoor Spiders

28. Hunting Strategies:Web Spiders

29. Web Builders Funnel Web

31. Hunting Strategies:Stalkers

32. Legs in Spiders Four pair legs (insects have three)

33. Web Design Silk secreted by silk glands Spinnerets spin silk into web

35. Mating The male initiates by: presenting a gift stroking the female doing some type of dance Female usually larger After mating, the male dies or is eaten by the female Female lays eggs, and spins an egg sac to protect them

36. Mating Funnel Web spiders mating Golden Silk Banana Spiders

37. Egg Sacs Spiders spin egg sac from silk Eggs remain in sac until hatching

38. Dangerous North American Spiders Black Widow Nocturnal Hides under logs/rocks Red hourglass Neurotoxin / cramps Brown Recluse Fiddle shape on thorax Causes tissue death Dark places (sheds, boxes, cellars, attics)

39. Injury by the Brown Recluse

40. Sequence of Necrosis 3 days 9 days 11 days 38 days after a skin graft

42. Scorpions Many abdominal segments (includes tail) Six pair appendages Enlarged pedipalps/pinchers Stinger at end of tail

43. Mating Courtship dance: partners grasp pedipalps and “dance” Scorpions give birth to live young Young remain with mom for short time

44. Acari: Ticks & Mites All three body segments are fused into one (L) Broad mite: pest of citrus, pepper and tomato plants; (R) Dog tick, the largest mite

45. Scabies Mites Too small to be seen. Burrow under the skin Deposit waste Itching and redness to the host.

46. Chigger Mites (Redbugs) Adults don’t feed on animals Chigger eggs hatch into parasitic larvae. They attach & digest the skin with strong digestive enzymes This causes the intense itching and damage. They then fall off become nonparasitic adults.

47. Ticks Two major types Hard ticks Soft ticks Transmit more disease than any other blood sucking arthropod Lyme disease Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

48. Hard Tick Life Cycle Three stages Larvae Nymph Adult Feed once per life stage Adult females feed once, lay ~1000 eggs, and then die

49. Lyme Disease Caused by bacteria Transmitted by ticks Black-legged tick Dog tick Symptoms ‘Bulls-eye’ rash Flu-like symptoms Complications Arthritis Muscle Systemic (heart, lungs)

50. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Caused by bacteria Transmitted by ticks Symptoms: Fever Headache Rash Can be fatal Treated with antibiotics

51. Quiz Name two parts of the spider anatomy that help it to spin webs What are two differences between compound and simple eyes? What adaptation allowed arthropods to become the most diverse and numerous animal on earth? What allows the arthropod to grow despite having a rigid exoskeleton? What are the differences between pedipalps and chelicerae?

52. Crustaceans 2 pair sensing antennae Mandibles which move side–to–side for crushing food 2 compound eyes on movable stalks Five pair of walking legs 1st pair legs = modified claws Some have 3 body segments, some two.

53. Types of Crustaceans Lobster Water fleas Crabs Crayfish Barnacles Prawns Shrimp Pill bugs

55. Sensing Antennae The only arthropods with two pair antennae

56. Walking Legs Five pair walking legs Four for walking One modified pair enlarged as pinchers

57. Mandibles (jaw bones) Move side to side rather than up and down

58. Movable Eye Stalks Allows the crustacean to see in all directions

59. Sow Bugs and Pill Bugs Aka, the Rolly Polly The only land crustacean Rolls into tight ball when threatened

60. Identify the parts

61. Insecta: the Insects Anatomy (most common): 3 body sections (head, thorax, abdomen). 6 legs attached to thorax 1 – 2 pair of wings Antennae Segmented abdomen with reproductive organs Eyes 1 pair of compound eyes 2-3 simple eyes

62. Insect Body Plan Three sections: Head Thorax Abdomen

63. Insect Head Antennae Eyes 1 pair compound 2 – 3 simple

64. Antennae Sensory organs Attached to head

65. Compound Eyes Composed of up to thousands of ommatidia Can detect motion and sometimes color

66. The Thorax Legs Six pair Jointed Wings 1-2 pair

67. One to two pair of Wings- Attached to the thorax

68. Insect Legs Jointed – this makes them very useful!

69. The Famous Grasseaglorpion

70. Abdomen Segmented Reproductive Organs Stinger

71. Ants and Bees Social Insects Live in colonies Have a division of labor Communicate through pheromones

72. Quiz Name five groups of arthropods What are three similarities and three differences that crustaceans and insects have in common? Name four examples of crustaceans Name four classes of arachnids What are two differences and three similarities between scorpions and spiders? Name three similarities and two differences between arachnids and insects

73. Chilopoda: Centipedes Carnivore One pair of legs per segment Painful bite 15 – 181 body segments – always an odd number.

74. Diplopoda: millipedes May have 100+ segments 2 pair of legs per segment Herbivores

75. Merostomata: Horseshoe crabs Living fossils (unchanged for 500 million years) Heavy exoskeleton Forage for seaweed, worms, & mollusk on sea bottom Spawn and lay eggs on land buried in sand.

76. Horseshoe Crab Four pair walking legs Pedipalps Chelicerae

77. Three kinds of Insect Development Gradual Development Eggs hatch with babies looking just like adults. Molt as they grow. Some of the wingless insects (springtail/silverfish):

78. 2. Incomplete Metamorphosis Three stages: Egg Nymph: looks similar to adult but may lack appendages/can’t reproduce with each molt, looks more like adult form Adult Cockroaches Grasshoppers Cinch bugs

79. Grasshopper Development Nymph Adult Eggs

80. 3. Complete MetamorphosisFour stages: Egg Larvae: free-living, worm-like stage (caterpillar) Pupae: tissues/organs break down. Replaced with adult tissues. No movement/feeding. May occur in cocoon Adult Insect examples Moths Butterflies

81. Butterfly Development Development of the crow butterfly: (Above left) egg; (Left) larvae; Above: pupae and cocoon; next slide: adult

83. The End

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