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A systematic review of four injection therapies for lateral epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections. 16 th Nordic Congress Copenhagen Denmark David Rabago, University of Wisconsin, USA

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A systematic review of four injection therapies for lateral epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

16th Nordic Congress

Copenhagen Denmark

David Rabago, University of Wisconsin, USA

Rabago D, Best TM , Zgierska A , Zeisig E , Ryan M  and Crane D;  A systematic review of four injection therapies for lateral epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma; BJSM doi:10.1136/bjsm.2008.052761; 2008


Basics tennis elbow is bad
Basics: epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injectionsTennis Elbow is Bad…

  • Tendon disease:

    7% of injury-related diagnoses

  • Tennis Elbow:1-3% (16% auto-industry)

    4-7 cases / 1000 / year

  • Often refractory to conservative care

  • High quality-of-life and work impact

  • Expensive: $ billions direct and indirect costs

  • Conventional therapies do not treat the underlying pathology


Systematic review
Systematic Review epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

  • 4 injection therapies with recent clinical trial data

  • Reviewed every database, paper, trial registry for all reports assessing these injections for lat epi in humans


Histology of common tendinopathies
Histology of Common Tendinopathies epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

  • Common extensor tendon: Tennis Elbow

    • neovascularization, collagen disruption,

      ↑ fibroblasts, mucoid degeneration

  • Achilles Tendon

    • increased vascularity, lipoid degeneration, collagen fibers degeneration & derangement

  • Patellar Tendon

    • increased vascularity,disorganized collagen fibers, mucoid degeneration


Histology of tendinopathies
Histology of Tendinopathies epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

Normal Tendon

Tendinopathy


Pathophysiology of overuse tendon injuries
Pathophysiology of overuse epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injectionstendon injuries

SuccessfulHealingResponse

Acute Inflammation?

Tendinopathy Cycle


Tennis elbow u s
Tennis Elbow U/S epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

Extensor tendon origin

Distal humerus

Hypo-echoic

Radial head

Joint space


Tennis elbow u s with color doppler
Tennis Elbow U/S epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injectionswith color doppler


4 injection therapies
4 Injection Therapies epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

  • Polidocanol

  • Platelet rich plasma and whole blood

  • Prolotherapy with dextrose and sodium morrhuate


Polidocanol
Polidocanol? epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

  • Sclerosant: most widely used worldwide

  • Disrupts venous cellular membrane,

    causing fibrosis - most commonly used in vein Tx (varicosities, telangectasias)

  • Safe:

    • low incidence of allergic reactions

    • low incidence of staining

    • relatively forgiving if extravasated


Platelet rich plasma autologous whole blood
Platelet-rich Plasma/Autologous Whole Blood? epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections


Platelet rich plasma biology
Platelet Rich Plasma Biology epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

  • PDGF

    • Chemoattractive for Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    • Differentiation of Fibroblasts and Osteoblasts

  • TGF-B

    • Promotes cell mitosis, Type I Collagen

  • VEGF

    • Stimulates angiogenesis

  • Basic Fibroblast GF, Epidermal GF, Connective Tissue GF

  • Many other Bioactive Factors


Prp application technique withdraw peripheral blood place blood in canister centrifuge

PRP Application Technique epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

Withdraw peripheral blood

Place blood in canister

Centrifuge


Prp application technique remove ppp shake vigorously for 30 seconds

Platelet Poor Plasma epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

(PPP)

PRP Application Technique

Remove PPP

Shake vigorously for 30 seconds

Platelet Rich Plasma

(PRP)

Packed Red Blood Cells


Platelet rich plasma biology growth factors increase linearly with platelet concentration

Platelet Rich Plasma Biology epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

Growth Factors increase linearly with platelet concentration


Prolotherapy hyperosmolar dextrose
Prolotherapy Hyperosmolar Dextrose? epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

  • Traditionally defined as causing osmotic shock to localized cells

  • Trauma of water exiting – disrupts cell membrane

  • Pro-inflammatory, anabolic reaction


Prolotherapy sodium morrhuate
Prolotherapy Sodium Morrhuate? epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

  • Traditionally identified as chemotactant causing anabolic inflammatory response

  • Sclerosant; direct disruption of neovascular cellular membrane

  • Regulation of VEGF, TGFβ, Substance P, apoptosis, others?


A epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

B

C

D

Response of stretch-injured rat MCLs to Dextrose PrT


Systematic review1
Systematic Review epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

  • Reviewed all major databases, paper reference sections and trial registries for all reports assessing these injections for tennis elbow


Systematic review methods assessment
Systematic Review Methods: Assessment epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

  • Overall Methodological Quality

  • Relative Effect Size Compared to Controls

  • Cohen’s d Effect Size when appropriate

  • Effect size of secondary outcomes


Systematic review results
Systematic Review: Results epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

  • 2003-2008, 9 papers, 201 subjects 3 autologous whole blood, 2 polidocanol,2 prolo, 1 PRP

  • Methodological quality moderate to strong

  • Pain from 3-25 months, often refractory

  • Adverse events: routine associated with inj.

  • Follow up from 9-108 weeks

  • Relative effect size from 51%-94%

  • All but 1 used pre-post VAS scale


4 injection txs for lat epi
4 injection Txs for Lat Epi epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections


4 injection txs for lat epi1
4 injection Txs for Lat Epi epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections


What s really going on
What’s epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injectionsreally going on?

Prolotherapy

Polidocanol

Platelet Rich Plasma/AWB


Conclusions future directions
Conclusions/Future epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections Directions

  • Consistent moderate-large effect sizes in these pragmatic, pilot level studies

  • Each therapy is likely of clinical use for refractory tennis elbow in primary care settings; confirmatory RCT and larger pragmatic studies are warranted

    • Larger, randomized

    • Direct comparison of injectants


Citations
Citations epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injections

  • Zeisig E, Fahlström M, Ohberg L, H. A. A 2-year sonographic follow-up after intratendinous injection therapy in patients with tennis elbow. Br J Sports Med 2008;ePub

  • Zeisig E, Fahlström M, Ohberg L, Alfredson H. Pain relief after intratendinous injections in patients with Tennis elbow - results of a randomised study. Br J Sports Med 2008;42:267-271

  • Scarpone M, Rabago D, Zgierska A, Arbogest J, Snell ED. The efficacy of prolotherapy for lateral epicondylosis: a pilot study. Clinical J Sports Med 2008;18:248-254

  • Connell DA, Ali KE, Ahmad M, Lambert S, Corbett S, Curtis M. Ultrasound-guided autologous blood injection for tennis elbow. Skeletal Radiol 2006;35(6):371-377

  • Mishra A, Pavelko T. Treatment of Chronic Elbow Tendinosis With Buffered Platelet-Rich Plasma. Am. J. Sports Med 2006;34:1774 – 1778

  • Zeisig E, Ohberg L, Alfredson H. Sclerosing polidocanol injections in chronic painful elbow-promising results in a pilot study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2006;14:1218-1224

  • Glick R et al. Prolotherapy for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis: A double-blind pilot study. North American Research Conference on Complementary and Integrative Medicine; 2006; Edmonton, Canada. Focus Altern Complement Ther

  • Lyftogt J. Subcutaneous prolotherapy treatment of refractory knee, shoulder and lateral elbow pain. Australasian Musculoskeletal Medicine Journal 2007;12

  • Gani NU, Butt MF, Dhar SA, Farooq M, Mir MR, Kangu KA, et al. Autologous Blood Injection In The Treatment Of Refractory Tennis Elbow . The Internet Journal of Orthopedic Surgery 2007;5.

  • Edwards SG, Calandruccio JH. Autologous blood injections for refractory lateral epicondylitis. J Hand Surgery Am 2003;28:272-278.

  • Zeisig E, Ohberg L, Alfredson H. Extensor origin vascularity related to pain in patients with tennis elbow. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2006;14:659-663


Thanks discussion
Thanks! epicondylosis: prolotherapy, polidocanol, whole blood and platelet rich plasma injectionsDiscussion…


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