What is development what does it mean to be rich and how do you get rich
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What is Development? What does it mean to be rich and how do you get rich?. Jared Diamond’s (Yalu’s) question. Eurasian superiority of plants and animals for domestication orientation of continents. Jeffrey Sachs on Africa. tropical climate and disease lack of navigable rivers.

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What is Development? What does it mean to be rich and how do you get rich?

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What is development what does it mean to be rich and how do you get rich

What is Development?What does it mean to be rich and how do you get rich?


Jared diamond s yalu s question

Jared Diamond’s (Yalu’s) question

  • Eurasian superiority of plants and animals for domestication

  • orientation of continents


Jeffrey sachs on africa

Jeffrey Sachs on Africa

  • tropical climate and disease

  • lack of navigable rivers


David landes explanation

David Landes’ explanation

  • culture


Example of china

Example of China

  • After 1433 Chinese emperor abandons the “Treasure Fleet”, leaving trade and exploration


Modernization theory

Modernization theory

  • on different points of the same path

undeveloped

Semi-developed

Highly developed


Dependency theory

Dependency theory

  • Europe’s early advantage continues to stunt the development of poorer countries

  • trapped providing resources and agricultural goods to rich world

  • scissors effect

industrial goods

resources and agricultural goods


Counter example the tigers etc

Counter example: the “tigers”, etc

  • Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore

  • then others--Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Chile, Ireland

  • India, China


How did they do this

how did they do this?

  • industrialization by little steps

  • example of Japanese car makers

  • toys and textiles

  • Initially protected industries, quickly subjected to competition for the world market—”export-led growth”


What is development

What is Development?

  • Measuring development:

  • GDP

  • PPP

  • GNH

  • HDI

  • includes life expectancy, literacy, and schooling as well as income


World hdi rankings

World HDI rankings

  •  Norway

  •  Iceland

  •  Australia

  •  Luxembourg

  •  Canada

  •  Sweden

  •  Switzerland

  •  Ireland

  •  Belgium

  •  United States


Is the world getting richer or poorer

Is the world getting richer or poorer?

  • Richer

  • Long term global welfare improving with respect to average life expectancy, infant mortality, income, calories consumed, etc.

  • But some regions have experienced declines in recent years


Sub saharan africa the exception

Sub-Saharan Africa the exception


Moreover global inequality increased

Moreover, global inequality increased

  • 1948 developing world per capita GDP--$100, US--$1,600

  • 1993 developing world—$1,100, US--$25,000

  • Similar trends in child mortality, education, etc.


What about within country inequality

What about within country inequality?


What is the role of aid to the poor countries

What is the role of AID to the poor countries

  • American aid:

  • first or second biggest contributor

  • low percentage--.1-.2% of GDP

  • often given to mid-income countries-- politics


Millennium development goals

Millennium Development Goals

  • by 2015 halve the number living on $1 a day

  • universal primary ed

  • eliminate gender discrimination in 1ary and 2ndry ed

  • reduce by 2/3 child mortality, maternal

  • reverse spread of AIDS, malaria

  • halve those w/o access to clean water


Millennium development goals1

Millennium Development Goals

  • raise North’s contribution to .7% GNP

  • Jeffrey Sachs’ position:

  • 1000s of underfinanced programs in health, education, infrastructure

  • critics: there is no capacity to productively spend large increases


Debt relief

Debt Relief

Since mid 90s, a major issue, with roughly 30 countries receiving relief


Remittances

Remittances

  • More important than aid?--over $100 billion, especially to Mexico, Philippines, and India


Women in the muslim world

Women in the Muslim world

  • Places w/ low female ed., rights, are poor

  • Turkey under Ataturk

  • 1920s women gained basic rights , and was first country with women on high court, and one of the first with a female PM

  • Tunisia with independence 1956

  • Banned polygamy, marriage age to 17, consent for marriage, women can request divorce, etc.

  • Tunisia’s better literacy, lower birth rates have propelled it past neighboring countries

  • Qatar—since ’99 women and men vote and run, majority college students female

  • Kuwait—voting in 2005


Cont d

Cont’d

  • Saudi Arabia

  • Women treated as minors

  • But playing increasing role in politics, ed, and business

  • Afghanistan

  • Less than 20% female literacy

  • Ed improved since Taliban gone, but minimally funded

  • Iraq

  • The status of women could deteriorate since fall of Saddam’s secular regime


Micro lending

Micro lending

  • Grameen Bank has expanded since 70’s—has 6 million borrowers in Bangladesh, 96% women


Trade more than aid

Trade more than aid

  • developed countries still protect their markets from poor country goods--sugar, cotton, tobacco, etc.


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