what is development what does it mean to be rich and how do you get rich
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What is Development? What does it mean to be rich and how do you get rich?. Jared Diamond’s (Yalu’s) question. Eurasian superiority of plants and animals for domestication orientation of continents. Jeffrey Sachs on Africa. tropical climate and disease lack of navigable rivers.

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jared diamond s yalu s question
Jared Diamond’s (Yalu’s) question
  • Eurasian superiority of plants and animals for domestication
  • orientation of continents
jeffrey sachs on africa
Jeffrey Sachs on Africa
  • tropical climate and disease
  • lack of navigable rivers
example of china
Example of China
  • After 1433 Chinese emperor abandons the “Treasure Fleet”, leaving trade and exploration
modernization theory
Modernization theory
  • on different points of the same path



Highly developed

dependency theory
Dependency theory
  • Europe’s early advantage continues to stunt the development of poorer countries
  • trapped providing resources and agricultural goods to rich world
  • scissors effect

industrial goods

resources and agricultural goods

counter example the tigers etc
Counter example: the “tigers”, etc
  • Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore
  • then others--Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Chile, Ireland
  • India, China
how did they do this
how did they do this?
  • industrialization by little steps
  • example of Japanese car makers
  • toys and textiles
  • Initially protected industries, quickly subjected to competition for the world market—”export-led growth”
what is development
What is Development?
  • Measuring development:
  • GDP
  • PPP
  • GNH
  • HDI
  • includes life expectancy, literacy, and schooling as well as income
world hdi rankings
World HDI rankings
  •  Norway
  •  Iceland
  •  Australia
  •  Luxembourg
  •  Canada
  •  Sweden
  •  Switzerland
  •  Ireland
  •  Belgium
  •  United States
is the world getting richer or poorer
Is the world getting richer or poorer?
  • Richer
  • Long term global welfare improving with respect to average life expectancy, infant mortality, income, calories consumed, etc.
  • But some regions have experienced declines in recent years
moreover global inequality increased
Moreover, global inequality increased
  • 1948 developing world per capita GDP--$100, US--$1,600
  • 1993 developing world—$1,100, US--$25,000
  • Similar trends in child mortality, education, etc.
what is the role of aid to the poor countries
What is the role of AID to the poor countries
  • American aid:
  • first or second biggest contributor
  • low percentage--.1-.2% of GDP
  • often given to mid-income countries-- politics
millennium development goals
Millennium Development Goals
  • by 2015 halve the number living on $1 a day
  • universal primary ed
  • eliminate gender discrimination in 1ary and 2ndry ed
  • reduce by 2/3 child mortality, maternal
  • reverse spread of AIDS, malaria
  • halve those w/o access to clean water
millennium development goals1
Millennium Development Goals
  • raise North’s contribution to .7% GNP
  • Jeffrey Sachs’ position:
  • 1000s of underfinanced programs in health, education, infrastructure
  • critics: there is no capacity to productively spend large increases
debt relief
Debt Relief

Since mid 90s, a major issue, with roughly 30 countries receiving relief

  • More important than aid?--over $100 billion, especially to Mexico, Philippines, and India
women in the muslim world
Women in the Muslim world
  • Places w/ low female ed., rights, are poor
  • Turkey under Ataturk
  • 1920s women gained basic rights , and was first country with women on high court, and one of the first with a female PM
  • Tunisia with independence 1956
  • Banned polygamy, marriage age to 17, consent for marriage, women can request divorce, etc.
  • Tunisia’s better literacy, lower birth rates have propelled it past neighboring countries
  • Qatar—since ’99 women and men vote and run, majority college students female
  • Kuwait—voting in 2005
cont d
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Women treated as minors
  • But playing increasing role in politics, ed, and business
  • Afghanistan
  • Less than 20% female literacy
  • Ed improved since Taliban gone, but minimally funded
  • Iraq
  • The status of women could deteriorate since fall of Saddam’s secular regime
micro lending
Micro lending
  • Grameen Bank has expanded since 70’s—has 6 million borrowers in Bangladesh, 96% women
trade more than aid
Trade more than aid
  • developed countries still protect their markets from poor country goods--sugar, cotton, tobacco, etc.