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CHAPTER 4. Population Ecology. 4-1: Population Dynamics. Populations are described as follows: Density Spatial distribution Growth rate Would an individual be considered a population?. Population Characteristics. Population density – number of organisms per unit of area

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Chapter 4

CHAPTER 4

Population Ecology


4 1 population dynamics
4-1: Population Dynamics

  • Populations are described as follows:

    • Density

    • Spatial distribution

    • Growth rate

      Would an individual be considered a population?


Population characteristics
Population Characteristics

  • Population density – number of organisms per unit of area

  • Spatial distribution

    • Dispersion (availability of resources is the most important factor)

      • Uniform

      • Clumped groups

      • Random

        Which of these dispersion types would be the easiest to predict?


  • Population ranges

    • Only certain areas an organism can be located (i.e. Iiwi vs. Peregrine Falcon)

    • A species might not be able to expand its population range because it cannot survive the abiotic conditions found in the expanded region.

    • Is it possible for a population to grow unchecked in size?


Population limiting factors
Population – Limiting Factors

  • Density-independent factors

    • Population size does NOT matter

    • Usually abiotic

    • Ex. Weather

  • Density-dependent

    • Population size does matter

    • Usually biotic

    • Disease, parasites & competition



Population growth rate
Population Growth Rate individuals

  • Natality vs. Mortality (most important)

  • Emigration vs. Immigration

  • Exponential growth model (geometric growth)

    • No limits

    • Lag phase (slow at beginning)

    • J shaped curve


  • Logistic Growth Model individuals

    • S shaped curve

    • Includes carrying capacity (population that can be supported by resources


Reproductive patterns
Reproductive Patterns individuals

  • R-strategists

    • Small

    • Short life spans

    • Many offspring

    • Little to no energy spent on offspring

    • An adaptation to unstable environments


Reproductive patterns1
Reproductive Patterns individuals

  • K-strategists

    • Large

    • Long life spans

    • Not many offspring

    • Lots of energy spent on offspring

    • An adaptation to stable environments

      --Carrying capacity demonstration


4 1 homework
4-1 HOMEWORK individuals

  • Pretend you are living in the 16 and 17 hundreds. Create an advertisement (possible group of two) urging American settlers to move westward using knowledge gained from the section. Be creative!!

  • Using the 3 dispersion patterns – find organisms that are defined by each and explain why.

  • Create a comic strip from the perspective of any r-strategist

  • Give me a real world example of a density-independent factor and a density-dependent factor. Research this – none from discussion or book allowed.



Human population growth

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/worldbalance/ individuals

Human Population Growth

  • Demography – size, density, distribution, movement, birth & death rates

  • World population expected to double in about 53 years


  • Technological advances individuals

    • We have learned to alter our environment to change carrying capacity

  • Human population growth rate

    • Although raising in overall population, the percent of increase is dropping

      • Diseases such as AIDS

      • Voluntary population control


Trends in human population growth
Trends in Human Population Growth individuals

  • Demographic transition (U.S. good example)

  • Zero population growth

    • Births + immigration = deaths + emigration

  • Age structure

    • Pre-reproductive (0-20)

    • Reproductive (20-45)

    • Post-reproductive (45 – 80+)

  • Human Carrying Capacity

    http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/calculators/


Trends in Human Population Growth individuals

  • Demographic transition (U.S. good example)


4 2 homework
4-2 Homework individuals

  • Comprehension sentences for the chapter – due on day of test

  • Personal feeling about human population growth worldwide using at least 5 terms from the chapter


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