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Prerequisites for Active Ageing. ETUC conference “EY2012: Improving solidarity between the generations and active ageing – overcoming obstacles to older people remaining in work and facilitating access to the job market for younger people” Larnaca , Cyprus, 4-5 October Hans Dubois

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prerequisites for active ageing

Prerequisites for Active Ageing

ETUC conference

“EY2012: Improving solidarity between the generations and active ageing – overcoming obstacles to older people remaining in work and facilitating access to the job market for younger people”

Larnaca, Cyprus, 4-5 October

Hans Dubois

Eurofound

slide3

Surveys

    • European Working Conditions Survey
      • 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010
    • European Quality of Life Survey
      • 2003, 2007, 2011
    • European Company Survey
      • 2004, 2009
  • Observatories
    • Working conditions
    • Restructuring
    • Industrial relations
  • Analytical studies, including case studies
examples of eurofound research related to active ageing
Examples of Eurofound research related to Active Ageing

1996-7: Age barriers in employment

2004-6: Employment initiatives for an ageing workforce

Database of good practice - 200 company case studies

Report on developments over last decade

2007: Working conditions of an ageing workforce

2010: Older workers and company restructuring in recession

2011: Company initiatives for workers with care responsibilities

Volunteering by older people

2012: Income from work after retirement

active ageing
“Active Ageing”
  • Active ageing is the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation and security in order to enhance quality of life as people age.
    • Not only paid work!
      • Also: volunteering, caring, home work, learning and leisuring activities
    • Not only physical!
    • Not only at old age!

Source: WHO, http://www.who.int/ageing/active_ageing/en/index.html

agenda
Agenda
  • Work
    • Prerequisites - policy implications
  • Caring
    • Prerequisites - policy implications
  • Volunteering
    • Prerequisites - policy implications
increase points in employment rates 2011 vs 2007 age groups eu27
Increase (%-points) in employment rates 2011 vs 2007, age groups (EU27)

Source: Eurostat’s LFS, online database

slide10

Not necessarily good news for older people

    • Higher employment rate among women below 50 in 2007 moved to the next age cohort in 2011 (many may have lost jobs)
    • For some countries (e.g. Ireland) and sectors (e.g. construction) employment rates dropped largely also for older workers
    • Older workers are less likely to get unemployed, but if they do, they experience particular difficulty in finding a new job (EQLS 2011; Karpinska 2011)
    • Some started to work, or postponed retirement, because of financial need
p ension adequacy sustainability concerns
Pension adequacy & sustainability concerns
    • Demographic dependency ratio, for 1 person aged 65+:
    • 2010: 4 aged 15-64
    • 2020: 3 aged 15-64
  • Concerns about pension adequacy and sustainability
  • While important to take this development into account…
slide13

Demographic dependency ratios…

  • … are hard to predict in the long run (immigration, fertility), vary regionally, were a concern already decades ago (e.g. World Bank 1992), and tend to focus on the peak
  • … do not take into account potentially:
    • decreased unemployment & inactivity among 15-64 (Wöss& Türk, 2011)
      • “NEETs:  young people not in employment education or training – characteristics, costs and policy responses in Europe” – (Eurofound 2012, forthcoming 22 October):
      • 14 million aged 15-29 (half unemployed, half inactive)
slide14

… fears of the increased ratio of 65+ vs 15-64 also do not take into account:

    • productivity
    • number of dependent children
    • and...
slide15

%-point increase employment rate 65-69 year olds

2005Q1 vs 2012Q1

More than 1 out of 10 Europeans between 65-69 does paid work.

Up from 8.6% (2005Q1) to 10.7% (2012Q1).

the drivers
The drivers

Strength of each driver’s impact depends on individual & regional situations.

Source: Eurofound (2012, forthcoming mid-October 2012) Income from work after retirement in the EU. Soon available on http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/

d ifficulties some to great with making ends meet 65 2010

FINANCIAL NEED

Income lower for retirees than for younger cohorts, and many have difficulties to make ends meet

Difficulties (some to great) with making ends meet, 65+ (2010)

Source: SILC data from Eurostat online database, downloaded 20 Feb 2012

slide18

Longer run: adaptation of pension systems, increased employment among younger cohorts and increased productivity can contribute to solving inadequacy

  • More immediate: retirees have been up-taking paid work
    • For 65+ who work in the EU27, 44% of their income comes from work (52% for 65-69 year olds) (2009)
    • For ¼: less than 15% of their income, 1/5: 80% of their income.
  • Not only because of financial need, but also because many want to work after the retirement age…

Source: Eurofound (2012, forthcoming mid-October 2012) Income from work after retirement in the EU. Soon available on http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/

slide19

B) INTEREST

33% wants to continue working after official retirement age, especially those closer to retirement

19

Source: Special Eurobarometer 378

slide20

Of the 1/10 of Europeans who work after retirement:

    • around 1/5: only because of financial need
  • Usually, it is a mix of motivations:
    • contribute to society
    • learning
    • social connection with clients & colleagues
    • allow higher material living standards

Source: Eurofound (2012, forthcoming mid-October 2012) Income from work after retirement in the EU. Soon available on http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/

key factors related to perceived job sustainability
Key factors related to perceived job sustainability
  • Strong negative impact:
    • Exposure to ergonomic risks: posture and movement related risks (standing, carrying heavy loads, repetitive arm movements etc.)
    • Experience of discrimination, violence, abuse, bullying or harassment
  • Rather strong positive impact:
    • Work–life balance
    • Career prospects
  • Also important: not having monotonous tasks; cognitive dimensions of work; autonomy (protective role); work intensity (deterrent role)
lifelong learning training among workers 2010
Lifelong learning: training among workers (2010)

Source: European Working Conditions Survey (2010) http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/surveys/smt/ewcs/results.htm

prerequisites policy pointers
Prerequisites - policy pointers
  • promoting \'employability\' over whole life course
  • stimulate intergenerational mentoring & training
  • fight age (old & young) related stereotypes
  • avoid exposure to ergonomic risks
  • flexible working arrangements, e.g. partial retirement schemes
  • stimulate work-to-work arrangements
  • Improve career prospects and work life balance
caring

Caring

“The sandwich generation”

1) Parents & 2) Children and grandchildren

(Source: TILDA, 2011)

Also: partners

grandparents who look after grandchildren regularly or occasionally
Grandparents who look after grandchildren (regularly, or occasionally)

Source: Herlofson, Hagestad, Slagsvold & Sørensen (2011, p. 78)

slide28
Provision of daily (or almost daily) grandchildren care among grandparents who look after grandchildren

Source: Herlofson, Hagestad, Slagsvold & Sørensen (2011, p. 78)

flexibility needed reconciliation of caring and working in an ageing workforce
Flexibility needed: Reconciliation of caring and working in an ageing workforce
  • 80% of care hours are provided by unpaid (family) carers
  • In nearly all countries more than half of carers of working age combine care with employment
  • 6%-10% of employees are providing regular care, especially older (female) workers (13%-16%)
  • Older workforce is becoming more and more female

Source: Eurofound (2011) Company initiatives for workers with care responsibilities for disabled children or adults. Dublin: Eurofound.

policy implications
Policy implications
  • Prerequisites – policy implications
    • benefits, information, flexible care services, flexible working times, and leave entitlements
  • Important for various reasons
    • increase labour participation (facilitate work for older carers or/and their children)
involved in voluntary and charitable activities outside of paid work 50 64 year olds
Involved in voluntary and charitable activities outside of paid work (50-64 year olds)

Source: EQLS (2007) online survey mapping tool. 2011 results will be released in the ‘Overview Report’ on 29 November

spend the right amount of time in voluntary work or political activities 50 64 year olds
Spend the right amount of time in voluntary work or political activities? (50-64 year olds)

Source: EQLS (2007) online survey mapping tool. 2011 results will be released in the ‘Overview Report’ on 29 November

slide34

Prerequisites – policy implications

    • (Just as with work,) people are more likely to volunteer when they are old if they did so when they were young: try to stimulate over the lifetime
    • showing appreciation –e.g. awards–, matching competences & tasks, awareness, reimbursing cost)*
    • But: be aware of potentially replacing paid work
  • Important for various reasons
    • Reduces social exclusion among volunteers, and among receivers of services
    • Services provided by volunteers contribute to society

*Source: Eurofound (2011), Volunteering by older people in the EU

overall conclusions
Overall conclusions
  • Prerequisites for active ageing
    • environment that offers opportunities
    • good working conditions,
      • - throughout working life
    • good health
      • improved, but not for equally for all groups,
      • be aware of impact crisis,
      • in turn also depends on conditions and activity throughout life
    • life-long learning
    • stimulate dialogue between worker & employer
    • facilitate care responsibilities & volunteering
thank you

Thank you!

[email protected]

Dublin

www.eurofound.europa.eu

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