Section 2 the cranial nerves
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Section 2 The Cranial Nerves( 脑神经 ). I. Olfactory n. ( 嗅神经 ) II. Optic n. ( 视神经 ) III. Oculomotor n. ( 动眼神经 ) IV. Trochlear n. ( 滑车神经 ) V. Trigeminal n. ( 三叉神经 ) VI. Abducent n. ( 展神经 ) VII. Facial n. ( 面神经 ). vcv. vcv. vcv. vcv. vcv. vcv. vcv. The Cranial Nerves.

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Section 2 The Cranial Nerves( 脑神经 )

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Section 2 the cranial nerves

Section 2 The Cranial Nerves(脑神经)

I. Olfactory n. (嗅神经)

II. Optic n. (视神经)

III. Oculomotor n.

(动眼神经)

IV. Trochlear n. (滑车神经)

V. Trigeminal n. (三叉神经)

VI. Abducent n. (展神经)

VII. Facial n. (面神经)


Section 2 the cranial nerves

vcv


Section 2 the cranial nerves

vcv


Section 2 the cranial nerves

vcv


Section 2 the cranial nerves

vcv


Section 2 the cranial nerves

vcv


Section 2 the cranial nerves

vcv


Section 2 the cranial nerves

vcv


The cranial nerves

The Cranial Nerves

VIII. Vestibulocochlear n.

(前庭蜗神经) (位听神经)

IX. Glossopharyngeal n.

(舌咽神经)

X. Vagus n. (迷走神经)

XI. Accessory n. (副神经)

XII. Hypoglossal n. (舌下神经)

一嗅二视三动眼,四滑五叉六外展,七面八听九舌咽,

迷.副,舌下十二全。


Introduction

Introduction

A. Classification of the Cranial Nerves

1. Sensory nerves (感觉神经):

I, II, VIII.

2. Motor nerves (运动神经):

III, IV, VI, XI, XII.

3. Mixed nerves (混合神经):

V, VII, IX, X.


Introduction1

Introduction

B. Components of the Cranial Nerves

1. Sensory (afferent) fibers

[感觉(传入) 纤维]

1) general somatic sensory fiber(GSA)(一般躯体感觉纤维):

skin nerve endings (皮肤神经末稍) muscle spindles (肌梭)


Introduction2

Introduction

 2) special somatic sensory fiber(SSA)(特殊躯体感觉纤维): visual (视), hearing (听),

balance organs (平衡)


Introduction3

Introduction

 3) general visceral sensory fiber (GVA) (一般内脏感觉纤维):

all viscera (全部内脏)

4) special visceral sensory fiber (SVA) (特殊内脏感觉纤维):

olfactory (嗅器) and taste (味器)


Introduction4

Introduction

2. Motor (efferent) fibers

[运动 (传出)纤维]

1) general somatic motor fiber (GSE) (一般躯体运动纤维):

muscles of the eye and tongue (眼外肌和舌肌)


Introduction5

Introduction

2) general visceral motor fiber (GVE) (一般内脏运动纤维):

smooth mm. (平滑肌), cardiac mm. (心肌), glands (腺体)


Introduction6

Introduction

 3) special visceral motor fiber (SVE) (特殊内脏运动):

skeletal muscles derive from branchial arch (源于鳃弓的骨骼肌)

I 鳃弓  咀嚼肌

II 鳃弓  面肌

III-VII 鳃弓  咽喉肌,

胸锁乳突肌,斜方肌


I the olfactory nerve sva

I. The Olfactory Nerve (嗅神经)SVA

olfactory

cells

(嗅细胞)

within the olfactory

epithelium of nasal cavity

(在鼻腔内嗅区上皮)

olfactory

bulb

(嗅球)

[anosmia 嗅觉丧失, hyposmia 嗅觉减退]

olfactory filaments (I)

(嗅丝)

cribriform foramina

[anosmia 嗅觉丧失]


Ii the optic nerve ssa

 II. The Optic Nerve (视神经) SSA

optic

chiasma

(视交叉)

rod cells

(视杆细胞)

cone cells

(视锥细胞)

ganglionic

cells

(节细胞)

bipolar

cells

(双极细胞)

II

optic canal

(视神经管)

[total blindness 全盲]

photoreceptor cells

(感光细胞)


The oculomotor nerve gse gve

 Ⅲ. The Oculomotor Nerve (动眼神经)GSE, GVE

superior rectus

levator palpebrae

superioris

(上直肌,上睑提肌)

midbrain

(中脑)

脚间窝

III superior branch(上支)

III inferior branch(下支)

inferior rectus

medial rectus

inferior oblique

(下直肌,内直肌,下斜肌)

sup. orbital

fissure (眶上裂)

sphincter pupil, ciliary m.

(瞳孔括约肌,睫状肌)

[strabismus 斜视]

[眼睑下垂, 瞳孔扩大 , 眼球转向外下, 复视]


Section 2 the cranial nerves

 Ⅲ. The Oculomotor Nerve

(动眼神经)GSE, GVE


The trochlear nerve gse

 Ⅳ. The Trochlear Nerve (滑车神经)GSE

midbrain

(中脑)

背侧

sup. orbital

fissure(眶上裂)

superior oblique

(上斜肌)

IV


The trigeminal nerve gsa sve

 Ⅴ. The Trigeminal Nerve(三叉神经)GSA, SVE

lacrim n(泪腺)

lacrimal gland(泪腺)

frontal (额) n

眶上神经

额皮

V

ganglion

(三叉神

经节)

滑车上神经

ophthalmic n

(眼神经)

nasociliary(鼻睫) n

鼻背,腔,筛窦,眼球

pons

(脑桥)

infraorbital(眶下) n

眼口间皮肤

V

maxillary n

(上颌神经)

Zygomatic n.(颧神经)

颧部皮肤

sup.alveolar(上牙槽) n

上牙,牙龈

mandibular

nerve (下颌n)

auriculotemporal n

颞部皮肤

buccal (颊) n

颊部皮肤,粘膜

VII

lingual (舌) n

舌前 2/3 一般感觉

[trigeminal neuralgia

三叉神经痛]

[trigeminal nerve block

三叉神经封闭]

Taste.舌前2/3味觉

鼓索

inf. alveolar n

mental 颏n

下唇皮肤

lower teeth下牙,牙龈

下颌舌骨肌N

mastic.mm.咀嚼肌

masticat. brs(咀嚼肌支)


Section 2 the cranial nerves

Ⅴ. The Trigeminal Nerve

(三叉神经) GSA, SVE


Section 2 the cranial nerves

Ⅴ. The Trigeminal Nerve

(三叉神经) GSA, SVE


Section 2 the cranial nerves

Ⅴ. The Trigeminal Nerve

(三叉神经) GSA, SVE


The abducent nerve gse

 Ⅵ. The Abducent Nerve (展神经)GSE

sup. orbital

fissure(眶上裂)

pons

(脑桥)

lateral rectus

(外直肌)

VI

[strabismus斜视] [diplepia (double vision) 复视]


Vii the facial nerve sve sva gsa gve

VII. The Facial Nerve (面神经)SVE,SVA,GSA,GVE

V1 lacrimal n

pons

(脑桥)

延髓沟

geniculate

ganglion

(膝神经节)

lacrimal gland

nasal glands

palatine glands

(泪,鼻腔,腭腺)

greater petrosaln

(岩大神经)

pterygo-

palatine

ganglion

腭,蝶腭N

VII

VII

stapedial n (镫骨肌神经)

stapedius

(镫骨肌)

taste of

anterior 2/3

of tongue

(舌前味觉)

[facial

paralysis

面神经瘫]

[facial

spasm

面痉挛]

tympanic chord(鼓索)

lingual n(舌神经)

temporal branches (颞支)

submandibular

gland,

sublingual gland

(下颌下腺,舌下腺)

zygomatic branches (颧支)

buccal branches (颊支)

marginal mandibul. br(下颌缘)

facial mm.

(面肌)

cervical branch (颈支)


Section 2 the cranial nerves

VII. The Facial Nerve (面神经)

SVE,SVA,GSA,GVE


Section 2 the cranial nerves

VII. The Facial Nerve (面神经)

SVE,SVA,GSA,GVE


The vestibulocochlear nerve ssa

 Ⅷ. The Vestibulocochlear Nerve (前庭蜗神经)SSA

macullae of

saccule(椭圆囊)

macullae of

utricle(球囊)

ampullary

crest(壶腹嵴)

brain

stem

(脑干)

延髓脑桥沟

vestibular

ganglion

(前庭神经节)

[nervous deafness

神经性耳聋]

vestibular n.

(前庭神经)

头位置

cochlear n.

(蜗神经)

spiral

ganglion

(螺旋神经节)

听觉

spiral organs

(螺旋器)

Int.acous. meatus & pore

(内耳道,内耳门)


Section 2 the cranial nerves

 Ⅷ. The Vestibulocochlear Nerve

(前庭蜗神经)SSA


The g lossopharyngeal nerve

 Ⅸ. The Glossopharyngeal Nerve (舌咽神经)

medulla

oblongata

(延髓)

SVE, GVE, SVA, GVA,GSA

IX

sup. ganglion

otic

gang

parotid gland(腮腺)

inf. ganglion

tympanic n(鼓室)

carotid sinus branch

carotid sinus & glomus

post. 1/3 of tongue (taste

& other sensory)

lingual br (舌支)

pharyngeal branch(咽支)

pharynx

pharyngeal mm.

stylopharyngeal br (茎突咽肌支)

stylopharyn.(茎突咽肌)

palantine tonsil(腭扁桃体)

tonsillar br.(扁桃体支)

post.auricular br(耳后支)

post. auricul. skin(耳后皮肤)


Section 2 the cranial nerves

 Ⅸ. The Glossopharyngeal Nerve

(舌咽神经) SVE, GVE, SVA, GVA,GSA


The vagus nerve sve gve gva gsa

 Ⅹ. The Vagus Nerve (迷走神经) SVE, GVE, GVA,GSA

medulla oblongata

X

L

R

sup. ganglion

耳支耳廓,硬脑膜

ext.br.(外支)

cricothyroideus(环甲肌)

sup.laryng.n(喉上N)

int.br.(内支)

laryn.mucosa(喉粘膜)

inf. ganglion

phary.br.(咽支)

phary.mm(咽肌)

& mucosa(粘膜)

sup.cerv.card.br.(颈上心支)

cardiac plexus

(心丛)

heart mm

(心肌)

sense

inf.cerv.card.br.(颈下心支)

trac. br(气管支)

气管腺,肌

& mucosa(粘膜)

rec.laryng. n.(喉返N)

esoph.br(食管支)

食管腺,肌

& mucosa(粘膜)

inf.laryng.n(喉下N)

laryng.mm喉肌

& mucosa(粘膜)

bronc.br.(支气管支)

pulmonary plx

支气管腺,肌

& mucosa(粘膜)

esophag.br.(食管支)

esoph. plx

食管腺,肌

& mucosa(粘膜)

hepat.br.(肝支)

hepat. plx

肝腺,肌

sens

ant.vagal tr.(前干)

ant.gast.br(胃前支)

gast. plx

胃腺,肌

sens

post.vagal tr.(后干)

post.gast.br(胃后支)

gast. plx

胃腺,肌

sens

celiac br.(腹腔支)

celiac plx

肠腺,肌

sens


Section 2 the cranial nerves

 Ⅹ. The Vagus Nerve (迷走神经) SVE, GVE, GVA,GSA


Xi the accessory nerve sve

 XI. The Accessory Nerve (副神经) SVE

medulla

oblongata

(脑干)

X

pharyngeal mm.

laryngeal mm(咽喉肌)

cranial root (颅根)

spinal cord

(脊髓)

spinal root(脊根)XI

sterno-cleido-mastoideus

(胸锁乳突肌)

trapezius(斜方肌)


Xii the hypoglossal nerve gse

XII. The Hypoglossal Nerve(舌下神经)GSE

medulla

oblongata

(延髓)

[paralysis of tongue

mm. 舌肌瘫痪]

(伸舌时舌歪向患侧)

XII

hypo-

glossal

canal

舌下

神经管

mm of tongue

(舌肌)

lingual branches(舌支)

descending br(降支)

ansa cervicalis

(颈袢)

infrahyoid mm

(舌骨下肌群)

cervical plexus (颈丛)


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