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Seasonal Assessment Training Household Economy Analysis: The Analytical Framework Livelihoods Integration Unit (LIU ) Early Warning & Response Department Disaster Management & Food Security Sector Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development. HEA Framework: Overview.

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Seasonal Assessment Training Household Economy Analysis: The Analytical Framework

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Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

Seasonal Assessment Training

Household Economy Analysis:

The Analytical Framework

Livelihoods Integration Unit (LIU)

Early Warning & Response Department

Disaster Management & Food Security Sector

Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

HEA Framework: Overview

In relation to seasonal assessments, the objectiveof HEA is to investigate the effects of hazardson future access to food and income at household level


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

Monitoring Data

(The changes)

+

On-going Analysis of Current and Projected Situation and Intervention Needs

(The outcome)

HEA Framework: Overview

The framework involves putting together two types of information:

Livelihood Baseline Data

(The context)


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

Coping step example: 1 household member migrates for labour

Hazard example:

50% crop failure

The baseline picture

Effect on access to crops

Final result

HEA Framework: Overview

Outcome = Baseline + Hazard + Coping

(a simple example)


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

HEA Framework: Overview

A more detailed example….

HEA starts with an understanding of how households normally live….


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

HEA Framework: Overview

A more detailed example….

…then it incorporates the impact of a shock….


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

Gap

The analysis suggests that post-shock, households will not be able to maintain their normal livelihood assets without assistance.

…and finally looks at how people might be able to cope.

Livelihoods Protection Threshold

Survival Threshold


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

In sum….

BASELINE


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

In sum….

+

HAZARD

BASELINE


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

In sum….

+

+

HAZARD

COPING

BASELINE


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

In sum….

+

+

=

HAZARD

OUTCOME

COPING

BASELINE


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

HEA Framework Overview: Components

In practice this process is broken into six steps

+

+

=

HAZARD

OUTCOME

COPING

BASELINE


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

Step 1: Livelihood Zoning

Enderta Dry Midland ZoneProduction: Rainfed mixed agriculture

Agro-ecological zone: Woina dega (midland)

Main Consumption: Wheat, Teff, Sorghum,

Main cash crops: Barley, Wheat, Sorghum,

Main livestock: Sheep, Cattle, Poultry

Market access: good

Other economic activities: Salt trade, animal sales,

Hazards: Drought every 3 years, weeds every year

Response of poor: Labour sales, firewood sales, migration

What it does:

Defines areas within which people share broadly the same patterns of livelihood

West Central Teff ZoneProduction: Rainfed mixed agricultureAgro-ecological zone: Woina dega (midland)

Main Consumption: Teff, Barley, Wheat, PulsesMajor Cash Crops: Teff, Wheat, PulsesMain livestock: Cattle, goat, sheepMarket Access: GoodHazard: Drought every 3 years, pests every 3 years, hailstorms annuallyResponse of poor: Labour sales, reduce meals (frequency)

Why it is necessary:

Allows you to target

geographically &

to customize indicators

for livelihoods monitoring

systems


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

Step 2: Wealth Breakdown

What it does:

Groups people together using local definitions of wealth and quantifies their livelihood assets

Gesho & Wheat Highland Zone

Why it is necessary:

Allows you to disaggregate

the population and indicate who (and how many) need assistance


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

Sources of Food

Step 3: Baseline food, income and expenditure quantification

What it does:

Quantifies sources of food and income, and expenditure patterns for a baseline year

2005-6 in Tigray

Sources of Income

Why it is necessary:

Enables comparisons across wealth groups, zones and countries

&

provides starting point for outcome analysis

Expenditure

Central Mixed Crop Livelihood Zone


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

OUTCOME ANALYSIS

Step 4:

What it does:

Translates a hazard into economic consequences at household level

Compiled from data collected during seasonal assessments or monitoring

Why it is necessary:

Allows you to

mathematically link

the shock to each relevant livelihood strategy


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

OUTCOME ANALYSIS

Step 5:

What it does:

Assesses the ability of households to respond to the hazard

Why it is necessary:

Determines the amount of external assistance required

&

Highlights monitoring indicators for testing prediction

Data collected during baseline


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

OUTCOME ANALYSIS

Step 6:

What it does:

Predicts the outcome of the hazard in relation to livelihood protection and survival thresholds

Why it is necessary:

Allows you to determine whether people need external assistance in order to survive and/or to maintain their livelihood assets

The figure compares three different situations, of progressively greater severity and urgency.


Seasonal assessment training household economy analysis the analytical framework

  • The Survival Threshold is the total income required to cover:

  • A)100% of minimum food energy needs (2100 kcals per person per day),

  • B) the costs associated with food preparation and consumption (i.e. salt, soap

  • kerosene and/or firewood for cooking and basic lighting),

  • any expenditure on water for human consumption

  • This is the line below which intervention is required to save lives.

  • The Livelihoods Protection Threshold represents the total income required to

  • sustain local livelihoods. This means total expenditure to:

  • A) ensure basic survival (see above),

  • maintain access to basic services (e.g. routine medical and schooling

    expenses),

  • C) plus sustain livelihoods in the medium to longer term (e.g. regular purchase of seeds, inputs vet drugs);

  • D) locally acceptable standard of living (e.g. coffee, pepper, etc)

  • This is the line below which an intervention is required to maintain existing livelihood assets


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