Measurement of carbonate minerals in aerosol samples a preliminary study
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Measurement of Carbonate Minerals in Aerosol Samples- A Preliminary Study. Johann Engelbrecht Desert Research Institute. X-ray Diffraction (XRD). XRD measures the presence and concentration of crystalline compounds (phases) such as minerals It does not record chemical concentrations.

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Measurement of Carbonate Minerals in Aerosol Samples- A Preliminary Study

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Measurement of Carbonate Minerals in Aerosol Samples- A Preliminary Study

Johann Engelbrecht

Desert Research Institute


X-ray Diffraction (XRD)

  • XRD measures the presence and concentration of crystalline compounds (phases) such as minerals

  • It does not record chemical concentrations


X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Scan

RS611-38 µm


X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Scan

RS611-PM10


X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Scan

RS611-PM 2.5


X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Scan

RS667-µm


X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Scan

RS667-PM10


X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Scan

RS646-38µm


X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Scan

RS646-PM10


Minerals Identified in 20Re-suspended Aerosol Filter Samples

  • Quartz [SiO2] (common)

  • Carbonate Minerals

    • Calcite [CaCO3]

    • Aragonite [CaCO3]

    • Dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2]

  • Layered Silicates

    • Micas such as Muscovite

    • Vermiculite

    • Clays such as Dickite, Kaolinite & Montmorillonite

    • Chlorite


Minerals Identified in 20 Re-suspended Aerosol Filter Samples

  • Feldspar Minerals

    • Anorthite

    • Microcline

  • Oxides

    • Rutile

  • Gypsum [CaSO4.2H2O]


Chemical vs Mineralogical Ratios


Chemical vs Mineralogical Ratios


Soluble Ca vs Total Ca


Carbonate vs Soluble Ca


OC4 vs Soluble Ca


Carbonate vs Total Ca


OC3 vs Total Ca


OC4 vs Total Ca


OC4 vs Carbonate


Chemical vs Mineralogical Ratios


Mineralogical Reactions

CaCO3 + SiO2 = CaSiO2 + CO2

calcite + quartz wollastonite

490 – 550 oC


Mineralogical Reactions

CaMg(CO3)2 + 4SiO2 + H20 =

dolomite + quartz + water

Mg3SiO4O10(OH)2 + 3CaCO3 + CO2

talc + calcite

150 – 250 oC


Question

  • With the current TOR method, are we quantitatively measuring all the carbonate in the aerosol samples?


Conclusions

  • Minerals can play an important role in aerosol samples which contain a significant amount of soil dust

  • XRD is an appropriate analytical tool for identifying & quantifying minerals on filter samples, but does require research

  • The TOR method for the measurement of mineral carbonate should be reviewed


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