Beginning greek for bible study
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evgw. to. :Alfa. Beginning Greek for Bible Study. Class #2 Review of English Grammar. kai. to. +W=. Exegetical Example. to.n mh. gno,nta a`marti,an u`pe.r h`mw/n a`marti,an evpoi,hsen( i[na h`mei/j genw,meqa dikaiosu,nh qeou/ evn auvtw/|Å

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Beginning Greek for Bible Study

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Beginning greek for bible study

evgw. to. :Alfa

Beginning Greek for Bible Study

Class #2

Review of English Grammar

kai. to. +W=


Exegetical example

Exegetical Example

  • to.n mh. gno,nta a`marti,an u`pe.r h`mw/n a`marti,an evpoi,hsen( i[na h`mei/j genw,meqa dikaiosu,nh qeou/ evn auvtw/|Å

  • 2 Cor. 5:21 – For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.


Nouns overview

Nouns - Overview

  • Case

  • Number

  • Gender

  • Declension


English cases

English Cases

  • The boy hit his ball

    • The boy – Subjective case

    • The ball – Objective case

    • His – Possessive case

  • Word order is usually key in identifying English cases


English cases1

English Cases


Gender inflection

Gender Inflection


English number gender

English Number & Gender

  • Number refers to a word being either singular or plural. In English, sometimes this is accomplished by adding an “s” to the end of the word. Other times, the form changes (“man” becomes “men”).

  • Gender refers to a word as being either masculine, feminine, or neuter.

    • Most English nouns do not have gender.

    • However, most English pronouns do.

    • Sometimes, we assign “natural” gender to words.


English grammar terms

English Grammar Terms

  • “Bob threw his green Greek book at the weird teacher.”

  • Noun – a word that stands for someone or something (Bob, book, teacher)

  • Adjective – a word that modifies a noun or pronoun (green, Greek, weird)

  • Preposition – a word that shows the relationship between two other words (at)


English grammar terms1

English Grammar Terms

  • Declension – a “pattern” of how words change to reflect their function

    • Plural

      • Adding “s”

        • Boy – Boys

        • Girl – Girls

      • Changing a vowel

        • Man – Men

        • Woman – Women

      • Drop the “y,” add “ies”

        • Family – families

        • Story – stories

        • Baby - babies


Verbs overview

Verbs - Overview

  • A verb is a word that describes an action or state of being:

    • Hit

    • Drive

    • Study

    • Think

    • Be – am, is, was


Verbs overview1

Verbs - Overview

  • Person

  • Number

  • Tense

  • Voice

  • Aspect

  • Mood


Verbs person

Verbs - Person

  • There are three “persons” – first, second, and third

  • First person – the person speaking (“I,” “we”)

  • Second person – the person being spoken to (“you,” “ya’ll”)

  • Third person – everything else (“he,” “she,” “it,” “they,” “book,” “coffee,” etc.)


Verbs person1

Verbs - Person

  • She is a nice person.

  • I am a believer.

  • He is a baseball player.

  • This sweet tea is refreshing.

  • You are a student.

  • Ya’ll are from Texas.


Verbs number

Verbs - Number

  • In the English third person, the verb is inflected by adding the letter “s” to the end of the verb.

    • I hit the ball.

    • You hit the ball.

    • He hits the ball.


Verbs agreement

Verbs - Agreement

  • A verb must “agree” with its subject in person and number.

    • The class learn Greek.

    • The class learns Greek.

    • I teaches the class.

    • I teach the class.

    • There is no tests in Greek class.

    • There are no tests in Greek class.


Verbs tense

Verbs - Tense

  • The tense of a verb refers to the TIME when the action of the verb takes place

  • There are three main tenses in English:

    • Present – I study

    • Past – I studied

    • Past Participle – I studied


Verbs tense1

Verbs - Tense


Verbs voice

Verbs - Voice

  • Voice refers to the relationship between the verb and its subject. A verb is either active or passive.

    • Active – the subject is doing the action – David hit the ball, She studied Greek

    • Passive – the subject is receiving the action – He was hit by the ball – She was justified by Christ


Verbs aspect

Verbs - Aspect

  • Aspect refers to the type of action that a verb describes

    • Continuous – ongoing process - “I am watching TV.”

    • Perfect – completed action with present consequences – “I have studied diligently.”

    • Undefined – says nothing other than that an action occurred – “I enjoy Greek.”

  • Don’t confuse tense with aspect.


Verbs aspect1

Verbs - Aspect


Verbs mood

Verbs – Mood

  • Mood refers to a verb’s relationship to reality

    • Indicative – statement of fact or reality.

    • Subjunctive – statement about what might happen.

    • Imperative - something that is commanded.


Clauses phrases

Clauses & Phrases

  • A clause is a group of related words that includes a subject and verb.

    • After Greek class, I am going home.

    • When I get home, I am going to bed.

  • A phrase is a group of words that does not have a subject or indicative verb.

    • After Greek class, I am going home.

    • Because of the weather, I stayed home.


Dependent subordinate clauses

Dependent (Subordinate) Clauses

  • A dependent (or subordinate) clause is a clause that cannot grammatically stand on its own. It does not make sense by itself.

    • When I get home

    • Because of the weather

  • An independent clause can stand on its own.

    • I am going home

    • I am going to bed

    • I am studying Greek


Clauses

Clauses

  • Recognizing an independent clause from a dependent clause is ESSENTIAL for understanding the Bible.

  • The main point of a biblical text is usually in an independent clause, not a dependent clause.


Clauses col 1 28 29

Clauses – Col. 1:28-29

  • 28 - We proclaim Him, admonishing every man and teaching every man with all wisdom, so that we may present every man complete in Christ.

  • 29- For this purpose also I labor, striving according to His power, which mightily works within me.


Clauses col 1 28 291

Clauses – Col. 1:28-29

  • We proclaim Him

    admonishing every man

    and teaching every man with all wisdom

    so that we may present every man complete in Christ.

  • For this purpose also I labor

    striving according to His power, which mightily works within me.


Clauses 1 peter 1 3 5

Clauses – 1 Peter 1:3-5

  • 3 - Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to His great mercy has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,

  • 4 - to obtain an inheritance which is imperishable and undefiled and will not fade away, reserved in heaven for you,

  • 5 - who are protected by the power of God through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.


Conjunctions

Conjunctions

  • Conjunctions are words that connect words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

    • Coordinating – connect independent clauses (and, but, for, or, so, yet)

      • The word was with God and the word was God.

      • Be angry but do not sin.

    • Subordinate – begin a dependent clause and often link it to an independent clause (because, since, if, when, where)

      • I am studying because I want to do well.

      • If we ask anything according to his will, He hears us.


Types of clauses

Types of Clauses

  • Relative – clauses that start with a relative pronoun (who, whose, whom, which, that)

    • “the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life” (Phil. 4:3)

    • "There is another who testifies of Me, and I know that the testimony which He gives about Me is true.” (John 5:32)


Types of phrases

Types of Phrases

  • Prepositional Phrase – start with a preposition

    • “The Greek book is under the table.”

    • “I do not receive glory from men” (John 5:41)

  • Participial Phrase – begin with a participle (a verb ending in “ing”)

    • After doing my Greek homework, I went to bed.

    • “You do not have His word abiding in you” (John 5:38)


Function of phrases

Function of Phrases

  • Phrases can act as parts of speech

    • Noun – Whoever is with me is not against me.

    • Adjectival – He who is not for us is against us.

    • Adverbial – Drive with care.


Examples

Examples

  • The Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it.

  • If we confess our sins, He is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.


Phrasing a bible study method

Phrasing – A Bible Study Method


Introduction to phrasing

Introduction to Phrasing

  • Phrasing is a way of visually dividing up a section of Scripture in order to see the author’s flow of thought and thus understand the passage.

  • Phrasing is different than sentence diagramming and is generally more useful in Bible study.

  • *****In this section, the author uses the term “phrase” in a broader way than in chapter 7. Don’t be confused!


Overview of phrasing

Overview of Phrasing

  • Step 1 – Find the beginning and end of the passage.

  • Step 2 - Identify the sections.

  • Step 3 – Identify the phrases.

  • Step 4 – Identify the main phrase(s) and modifying phrases.

  • Step 5 – Visually lay out the passage in a way that clearly shows the relationships of the phrases.


Step 1 identify the beginning and end of a passage

Step 1 – Identify the beginning and end of a passage

  • HOW?

    • Look for major shifts in topics

    • Look for shifts in audience

    • Look for shifts from description to prescription

    • Look for changes in key words and themes

    • Look for transitional phrases (“the next day,” “after this,” “therefore”)

    • Check your conclusions with a good commentary or study Bible.

    • Remember that the chapter and paragraph divisions are not inspired, but are helpful and usually correct in identifying major divisions.


Step 1 identify the beginning and end of a passage1

Step 1 – Identify the beginning and end of a passage

1 Cor 1:1-10

1Paul, called as an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother,

2To the church of God which is at Corinth, to those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus, saints by calling, with all who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours:

3Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

4I thank my God always concerning you for the grace of God which was given you in Christ Jesus,

5that in everything you were enriched in Him, in all speech and all knowledge,

6even as the testimony concerning Christ was confirmed in you,

7so that you are not lacking in any gift, awaiting eagerly the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ,

8who will also confirm you to the end, blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.

9God is faithful, through whom you were called into fellowship with His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.

10Now I exhort you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all agree and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be made complete in the same mind and in the same judgment.


Step 1 identify the beginning and end of a passage2

Step 1 – Identify the beginning and end of a passage

1Paul, called as an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother,

2To the church of God which is at Corinth, to those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus, saints by calling, with all who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours:

3Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Label? - Salutation


Step 2 identify the sections

Step 2 – Identify the sections

  • Read and re-read the passage until the natural “breaks” are identified.

  • Label the sections with the main point of the section


Step 2 identify the sections1

Step 2 – Identify the sections

1Paul, called as an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother,

2To the church of God which is at Corinth, to those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus, saints by calling, with all who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours:

3Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.


Step 2 identify the sections2

Step 2 – Identify the sections

  • AUTHOR

    (1) Paul, called as an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother,

  • RECIPIENTS

    (2) To the church of God which is at Corinth, to those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus, saints by calling, with all who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours:

  • GREETING

    (3) Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.


Step 3 identify the phrases

Step 3 – Identify the phrases

  • “A phrase is an assertion, a proposition, something that means something” (63).

  • A phrase is more than just one word.


Step 3 identify the phrases1

Step 3 – Identify the phrases

  • AUTHOR

    Paul

    called as an apostle of Jesus Christ

    by the will of God

    and Sosthenes our brother,

  • RECIPIENTS

    To the church of God

    which is at Corinth

    to those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus

    saints by calling

    with all who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours:

  • GREETING

    (3) Grace to you and peace

    from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.


Step 4 5 identify the main phrase s and modifying phrases lay out visually

Step 4/5 – Identify the main phrase(s) and modifying phrases – lay out visually

AUTHOR

Paul

called as an apostle of Jesus Christ

by the will of God

and Sosthenes our brother,

RECIPIENTS

To the church of God

=which is at Corinth

to those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus

saints by calling

with all who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours:

GREETING

Grace to you and peace

from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.


Homework

Homework

  • Read chapters 9-13

  • Do the exercises at the end of chapter 8

  • Practice identifying parts of speech in your Bible

  • Keep working on the alphabet!


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