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Bio-energy in Mauritius: lessons learned. Sanju Deenapanray CDM National Project Coordinator, Mauritius [email protected] Bio-carbon in Eastern & Southern Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (24 April 2009). Overview. CO 2 emissions & Electricity Sector in Mauritius

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Bio-energy in Mauritius: lessons learned

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Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

Bio-energy in Mauritius:

lessons learned

Sanju Deenapanray

CDM National Project Coordinator, Mauritius

[email protected]

Bio-carbon in Eastern & Southern Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (24 April 2009)


Overview

Overview

  • CO2 emissions & Electricity Sector in Mauritius

  • Bagasse co-generation & co-firing

  • Potential for CDM in Africa


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

~82%

Dependence on Fossil Fuel


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

CO2 Emissions

Per capita CO2 emission = 2.7 tonnes (2007)


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

Sectoral CO2 Emissions (1995 - 2007)

Electricity & Transport accounted for >83% of total emissions in 2007


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

Electricity Supply

Demand growing at 5-6% per annum

over the past decade

~78% of electricity produced from fossil fuels


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

Role of Independent Power Producers

  • In 2007, IPPs generated around 66.5% of total thermal electricity in Mauritius (1461.5 GWh out of 2464.6 GWh)

  • Internal consumption of IPPs was 234.8 GWh

  • Exported 1226.7 GWh to the gird (i.e. ~56% of all grid electricity) and CEB generated 972.3 GWh (or ~44%)

  • Thermal electricity is produced in 3 ways by IPPs

  • 1. Bagasse only (continuous power)

  • 2. Bagasse/Coal (firm power)

  • 3. Coal only (firm power)


Overview1

Overview

  • CO2 emissions & Electricity Sector in Mauritius

  • Bagasse co-generation & co-firing

  • Potential for CDM in Africa


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

Steam Turbo Generator

Sugar Process

Steam & Power

boiler

biomass

Steam Mill Drives

Surplus Electricity to Grid

Cogeneration – the concept


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

Key Enabling Factors

  • Economic & fiscal incentives

  • Power Purchase Agreements (attractive sale price of electricity for firm power)

  • Research & Development (technology transfer; bio-engineering etc …)

  • Equity Participation (of small in cogeneration plants through the State Investment Trust – up to 25%)


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

Increase in Efficiency in Cogeneration


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

Increase in Generation of Firm Power


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

Reduction in CO2 Emissions

  • Grid Emission Factor, EFgrid,2007 = 1.1773 tCO2/MWh

  • In 2007, a total of 346.8 GWh generated from bagasse (@ 242.5 kWh/TB)

  • Avoided CO2 emissions = 408,300 tonnes (2007)

  • Considering an average efficiency = 374.6 kWh/TB (@82 bars)

  • Potential for avoided CO2 emissions = 630,705 tonnes


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

How ‘dirty’ is the grid?

EFgrid,CM,y = EFgrid,OM,y X wOM + EFgrid,BM,y X wBM

Generation-weighted average CO2 emissions net of electricity generated of either 5 most recently built plants or 20% of last power generated (whichever is larger)

Generation-weighted average CO2 emissions net of electricity generated (excludes low-cost, must run plants & CDM projects)

wOM = wBM = 50% (1st crediting period)

For Mauritius (2007):

EFgrid,OM,y = 1.0886 tCO2 / MWh; EFgrid,BM,y = 1.2659 tCO2 / MWh;

EFgrid,CM,y = 1.1773 tCO2 / MWh

VERY DIRTY GRID


Overview2

Overview

  • CO2 emissions & Electricity Sector in Mauritius

  • Bagasse co-generation & co-firing

  • Potential for CDM in Africa


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

Bagasse Cogeneration in Africa

  • 10,000 GWh/yr (or 10 TWh/yr) in 2005 [90 million tonnes of cane]

  • In 2005, total demand of electricity in Africa was ~ 533 TWh

  • Potential to generate 2% of electricity demand from bagasse

  • Potential could be much larger considering availability of other renewable biomass in Africa (e.g. crop residues, woody biomass - quantity?)

  • Biomass can also be used to provide only thermal energy (process steam and heat) for industrial processes


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

Example - Mozambique

  • 596,271 TB produced in 2007

  • Assuming a conversion efficiency of 374.6 kWh/TB

  • EFgrid,2005 = 0.045 MWh/tCO2

18


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

Clean Development Mechanism

  • Several bagasse (biomass) cogeneration projects have successfully generated CERs

  • Approved baseline & monitoring methodologies exist. For example:

  • ACM0006 ‘Consolidated methodology for electricity generation from biomass residues – Version 8’

  • Several Small-Scale methodologies in Categories I.A, I.C and I.D

19


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

ACM0006 – Consolidated methodology for electricity generation from biomass residues – Version 8


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

ACM0006 – Consolidated methodology for electricity generation from biomass residues – Version 8


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

Additionality

“Reductions in emissions must be additional to any that would occur in the absence of the project activity”

  • Most registered CDM projects (biomass cogeneration / thermal energy production) have employed ‘Barrier Analysis’ to justify additionality. Some barriers are:

  • Investment barrier (high upfront CapEx)

  • Technological barrier

  • Barrier due to prevailing practice (cultural barrier)

  • Institutional barrier (e.g. access to grid, feed-in tariff)

  • Price risk of biomass residue

  • Biomass collection and storage barriers


Bio energy in mauritius lessons learned

End

Sanju Deenapanray

CDM National Project Coordinator, UNDP

[email protected]

Tel: +230 208 2416

Fax: +230 208 4871


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