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Bio-energy in Mauritius: lessons learned. Sanju Deenapanray CDM National Project Coordinator, Mauritius [email protected] Bio-carbon in Eastern & Southern Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (24 April 2009). Overview. CO 2 emissions & Electricity Sector in Mauritius

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Bio-energy in Mauritius:

lessons learned

Sanju Deenapanray

CDM National Project Coordinator, Mauritius

[email protected]

Bio-carbon in Eastern & Southern Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (24 April 2009)


Overview
Overview

  • CO2 emissions & Electricity Sector in Mauritius

  • Bagasse co-generation & co-firing

  • Potential for CDM in Africa


~82%

Dependence on Fossil Fuel


CO2 Emissions

Per capita CO2 emission = 2.7 tonnes (2007)


Sectoral CO2 Emissions (1995 - 2007)

Electricity & Transport accounted for >83% of total emissions in 2007


Electricity Supply

Demand growing at 5-6% per annum

over the past decade

~78% of electricity produced from fossil fuels


Role of Independent Power Producers

  • In 2007, IPPs generated around 66.5% of total thermal electricity in Mauritius (1461.5 GWh out of 2464.6 GWh)

  • Internal consumption of IPPs was 234.8 GWh

  • Exported 1226.7 GWh to the gird (i.e. ~56% of all grid electricity) and CEB generated 972.3 GWh (or ~44%)

  • Thermal electricity is produced in 3 ways by IPPs

  • 1. Bagasse only (continuous power)

  • 2. Bagasse/Coal (firm power)

  • 3. Coal only (firm power)


Overview1
Overview

  • CO2 emissions & Electricity Sector in Mauritius

  • Bagasse co-generation & co-firing

  • Potential for CDM in Africa


Steam Turbo Generator

Sugar Process

Steam & Power

boiler

biomass

Steam Mill Drives

Surplus Electricity to Grid

Cogeneration – the concept


Key Enabling Factors

  • Economic & fiscal incentives

  • Power Purchase Agreements (attractive sale price of electricity for firm power)

  • Research & Development (technology transfer; bio-engineering etc …)

  • Equity Participation (of small in cogeneration plants through the State Investment Trust – up to 25%)




Reduction in CO2 Emissions

  • Grid Emission Factor, EFgrid,2007 = 1.1773 tCO2/MWh

  • In 2007, a total of 346.8 GWh generated from bagasse (@ 242.5 kWh/TB)

  • Avoided CO2 emissions = 408,300 tonnes (2007)

  • Considering an average efficiency = 374.6 kWh/TB (@82 bars)

  • Potential for avoided CO2 emissions = 630,705 tonnes


How ‘dirty’ is the grid?

EFgrid,CM,y = EFgrid,OM,y X wOM + EFgrid,BM,y X wBM

Generation-weighted average CO2 emissions net of electricity generated of either 5 most recently built plants or 20% of last power generated (whichever is larger)

Generation-weighted average CO2 emissions net of electricity generated (excludes low-cost, must run plants & CDM projects)

wOM = wBM = 50% (1st crediting period)

For Mauritius (2007):

EFgrid,OM,y = 1.0886 tCO2 / MWh; EFgrid,BM,y = 1.2659 tCO2 / MWh;

EFgrid,CM,y = 1.1773 tCO2 / MWh

VERY DIRTY GRID


Overview2
Overview

  • CO2 emissions & Electricity Sector in Mauritius

  • Bagasse co-generation & co-firing

  • Potential for CDM in Africa


Bagasse Cogeneration in Africa

  • 10,000 GWh/yr (or 10 TWh/yr) in 2005 [90 million tonnes of cane]

  • In 2005, total demand of electricity in Africa was ~ 533 TWh

  • Potential to generate 2% of electricity demand from bagasse

  • Potential could be much larger considering availability of other renewable biomass in Africa (e.g. crop residues, woody biomass - quantity?)

  • Biomass can also be used to provide only thermal energy (process steam and heat) for industrial processes


Example - Mozambique

  • 596,271 TB produced in 2007

  • Assuming a conversion efficiency of 374.6 kWh/TB

  • EFgrid,2005 = 0.045 MWh/tCO2

18


Clean Development Mechanism

  • Several bagasse (biomass) cogeneration projects have successfully generated CERs

  • Approved baseline & monitoring methodologies exist. For example:

  • ACM0006 ‘Consolidated methodology for electricity generation from biomass residues – Version 8’

  • Several Small-Scale methodologies in Categories I.A, I.C and I.D

19


ACM0006 – Consolidated methodology for electricity generation from biomass residues – Version 8


ACM0006 – Consolidated methodology for electricity generation from biomass residues – Version 8


Additionality generation from biomass residues – Version 8

“Reductions in emissions must be additional to any that would occur in the absence of the project activity”

  • Most registered CDM projects (biomass cogeneration / thermal energy production) have employed ‘Barrier Analysis’ to justify additionality. Some barriers are:

  • Investment barrier (high upfront CapEx)

  • Technological barrier

  • Barrier due to prevailing practice (cultural barrier)

  • Institutional barrier (e.g. access to grid, feed-in tariff)

  • Price risk of biomass residue

  • Biomass collection and storage barriers


End generation from biomass residues – Version 8

Sanju Deenapanray

CDM National Project Coordinator, UNDP

[email protected]

Tel: +230 208 2416

Fax: +230 208 4871


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