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Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism English I. Agenda for Tutorial. Read three sample situations. Determine if the student was ethical in his or her use of a source. Learn more about how to avoid plagiarism. Take a quiz to verify your understanding.

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Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism English I

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Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

Using Sources in your Work:A Tutorial on Avoiding PlagiarismEnglish I


Agenda for tutorial

Agenda for Tutorial

  • Read three sample situations. Determine if the student was ethical in his or her use of a source.

  • Learn more about how to avoid plagiarism.

  • Take a quiz to verify your understanding.

  • Pledge that you will not plagiarize.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

Lets look at some hypothetical situations.For each, identify if the student used his or her sources acceptably.


Jack s situation

Jacks Situation

Jack has an English paper due tomorrow. He read the book and paid attention during class, but he has no idea what to write about.

Jack logs onto the Internet just to get some ideas about topics for his paper.

He finds a great idea and begins writing his paper using the topic he found. He is very careful to avoid copying any text or words from the Internet article he found.

Is this plagiarism?

Yes

No


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


You said jack did plagiarize

You saidJack did plagiarize.

You are right. Jacks actions constitute plagiarism.

  • Jack is committing plagiarism by taking the ideas of the source without citing them in the paper.

  • Even though he put the ideas in his own words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property of the source.


You said jack did not plagiarize

You saidJack did not plagiarize.

You are wrong. Jacks actions constitute plagiarism.

  • Jack is committing plagiarism by taking the ideas of the source without citing them in the paper.

  • Even though he put the ideas in his own words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property of the source. You are wrong. Jacks actions constitute plagiarism.

  • He could avoid plagiarism if he cites the source of the ideas in his paper.


Jill s situation

Jills Situation

During history class, Jill is asked to find some background on Fidel Castros rise to power.

Jill does a Google search and arrives at Wikipedias article on Fidel Castro. Without using quotation marks, Jill cuts and pastes several sentences from Wikipedia into her assignment.

Is this plagiarism?

Yes

No


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


You said jill did plagiarize

You saidJill did plagiarize.

You are right. Jills actions constitute plagiarism.

  • By taking the words from the Wikipedia article, Jill is committing plagiarism.

  • She can avoid plagiarizing if she quotes the article in her assignment and includes an entry describing the source in a bibliography at the end of her paper.


You said jill did not plagiarize

You saidJill did not plagiarize.

You are wrong. Jills actions constitute plagiarism.

  • By taking the words from the Wikipedia article, Jill is committing plagiarism.

  • She can avoid plagiarizing if she quotes the article in her assignment and includes an entry describing the source in a bibliography at the end of her paper.


Gretel s situation

Gretels Situation

Gretel is a freshman who feels overwhelmed by the high school. When her science teacher assigns a short worksheet on genetics, Gretel is confused and frustrated.

During lunch, Gretel borrows her friends paper and copies the answers onto her own paper.

Is this plagiarism?

Yes

No


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


You said gretel did plagiarize

You saidGretel did plagiarize.

You are right. Gretels actions constitute plagiarism.

  • Even if Gretels friend gave permission for Gretel to copy her work, it is still plagiarism.

  • Gretel is guilty of plagiarism. She tried to take credit for the words and ideas of another person.


You said gretel did not plagiarize

You saidGretel did not plagiarize.

You are wrong. Gretels actions constitute plagiarism.

  • Even if Gretels friend gave permission for Gretel to copy her work, it is still plagiarism.

  • Gretel tried to take credit for the words and ideas of another person.


Think you ve got it read the following and remember there will be a short quiz on this material

Think youve got it?Read the following(and remember, there will be a short quiz on this material!)


There are two acceptable ways to use sources

There are two acceptable ways to use sources:

  • Direct Quotation

  • Paraphrase

    • Includes summarizing and referencing the works of others within your paper or project


There are two acceptable ways to use sources1

There are two acceptable ways to use sources:

Direct Quotation

  • What it is:

    • The exact words of an author used word for word in your paper or project.

  • When to use it:

    • The exact phrasing of the source suits your needs.

    • You want to use the sources exact wordseven just a particular apt or unusual phrase.

  • How to use it:

    • Copy the exact words of the source, putting those words inside quotation marks.

    • Put a citation at the end of the quotation indicating the page number.

    • At the end of your paper, include a bibliographic entry on a page that lists your references.


There are two acceptable ways to use sources2

There are two acceptable ways to use sources:

Paraphrase

  • What it is:

    • Using your own words to restate the sources idea. This could be a summary of the sources point, a brief mention of the sources findings, or a longer restatement of the sources idea.

  • Use paraphrase when:

    • The exact phrasing of the source is too technical, too wordy, etc.

    • You want to present the sources idea in a more compact, focused way

  • How to use it:

    • Before the paraphrase, introduce the source. This will show where the paraphrase begins.

    • Use your own words to restate the meaning of the source. This means you change words, structure, and syntax. You do not merely substitute synonyms for the sources original phrasing.

    • Put a citation at the end of the quotation indicating the page number or source.

    • Include a bibliographic entry on a reference page at

      the end of your paper or project.


Testing your understanding

Testing your understanding

Can you tell the difference between a direct quotation and a paraphrase?

Click on the correct answer for each of the following samples.


Direct quotation vs paraphrase model 1

Direct Quotation vs. ParaphraseModel #1

In his book on Googles business strategy, John Battelle states, Google had more than its finger on the pulse of our culture, it was directly jacked into the cultures nervous system (2).

This is an example of

DIRECT QUOTATION

This is an example of

PARAPHRASE


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

You must choose from the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


Paraphrase

Paraphrase

Sorry, no. You are incorrect.

The student did not paraphrase--she used a direct quotation. The quotation marks give it away:

In his book on Googles business strategy, John Battelle states: Google had more than its finger on the pulse of our culture, it was directly jacked into the cultures nervous system (2).


Direct quotation

Direct Quotation

  • Easy, right? If you see quotation marks, it is a direct quotation.

  • Any time you use the exact words of a source, you must surround them in quotation marks and indicate the source.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

Direct Quotation vs. ParaphraseModel #2

Battelles argument is based on a memo written by Google CEO Eric Schmidt. The memo reveals that Google was focusing its attention on corporate marketing budgets (153).

This is an example of

DIRECT QUOTATION

This is an example of

PARAPHRASE


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

You must choose from the green buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


Paraphrase1

Paraphrase

Good job! Sample #2 was a paraphrase.

Anytime a student rewrites a sources idea into his or her own words, the user must give the source credit. This is paraphrasing.


Direct quotation1

Direct Quotation

No. Read it again:

Battelles argument is based on a memo written by Google CEO Eric Schmidt. The memo reveals that Google was focusing its attention on corporate marketing budgets (153).

That example is a paraphrase.

You should know because the student did not include quotation marks; she rephrased the original into her own written style; and she cited the source.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

Direct Quotation vs. ParaphraseModel #3

As he explains the importance of choosing the best searchable keywords to allow others to find a website, Battelle presents a comparison to the Greek story of The Odyssey, Is [being known to a wide audience] not what every person longs forwhat Odysseus chose over Kalypsos nameless immortalityto die, but to be known forever? (284).

This is an example of

DIRECT QUOTATION

This is an example of

PARAPHRASE


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

You must choose from the green buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


Paraphrase2

Paraphrase

  • You are incorrect. The example was a direct quotation. Look at it again:

    In explaining the importance of searchable functions, Battelle reveals his insight into the heart of mankind, Is that not what every person longs forwhat Odysseus chose over Kalypsos nameless immortalityto die, but to be known forever? (284).

  • The student included quotation marks, indicating that he used the exact words of the original source. Therefore, it is a direct quotation.


Direct quotation2

Direct Quotation

  • Correct!

  • The use of the exact words of the source makes it a direct quotation.

  • The student shows readers that it is a direct quotation by using quotation marks.

  • Additionally, he provides information to help the reader identify the source.


So you know the difference between a direct quotation and a paraphrase now what

So, you know the difference between a direct quotation and a paraphraseNow what?


Definition of plagiarism

Definition of Plagiarism

  • Plagiarism is:

    • To steal the words or ideas of another person

    • To pass off the words or ideas of another person as ones own

  • Further:

    • It does not matter whether the theft of words or ideas is intentional or accidental.

    • Either way, it is plagiarism.


Why should you bother

Why should you bother?

Four good reasons for citing sources in your work:

  • Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work.

  • Cheating is unethical behavior.

  • It is only fair to give credit to the sourceotherwise, you are stealing the sources ideas.

  • The consequences are severeplagiarism is not worth the risk.


You probably have two questions 1 what do i need to cite 2 how do i cite read on for the answers

You probably have two questions:(1)What do I need to cite?(2) How do I cite?Read on for the answers


What do i need to cite

Did you

think of

it?

Yes.

No.

Is it

common

knowledge?

Yes.

No.

Do not cite it.

Cite it.

What do I need to cite?

  • This chart will help you decide what must be cited.

    • It was created by Robert A. Harris in The Plagiarism Handbook.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

Did you

think of

it?

Yes.

No.

Is it

common

knowledge?

Yes.

No.

Do not cite it.

Cite it.

Sothe rule is:If you created it,you do not need to cite the source.If you did not create the content, you must cite the source.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

Did you

think of

it?

Yes.

No.

Is it

common

knowledge?

Yes.

No.

Do not cite it.

Cite it.

The one exception to that rule is for common knowledge.You do not need to cite the source of an unoriginal piece of information IF:(1) an educated person should know the information, OR(2) it is a provable fact that could be found in a general encyclopedia.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

So, you dont need to cite a fact, but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own.And, you must cite any time you use the exact words of the sourceeven if the words are presenting common knowledge.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

So, you dont need to cite a fact, for example: Ayn Rand wrote Anthem.OR Ayn Rand was born in 1905.but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own.for example: Dorothy Gale believed that Anthem is an inspiring story (75).OR According to Joe Smith, Equality 7-2521 represents the human spirit (15).And, you must cite any time you use the exact words of the sourceeven if the words are presenting common knowledge.You must always cite the source of ANY direct quotation.


Take one more look at this chart if the idea and the words are yours you do not need to cite

Did you

think of

it?

Yes.

No.

Is it

common

knowledge?

Yes.

No.

Do not cite it.

Cite it.

Take one more look at this chart!If the idea and the words are yours, you do not need to cite.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

So, lets check to see that you understand when you need to cite the source and when you dontAnswer the following questions and choose the correct answer.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

Test Case #1

Jack isnt sure if he needs to cite the source of the information below. He found the fact online.

Abraham Lincoln was our 16th president.

What do you think? What should Jack do? Pick one of the answers below.

Cite the source.

This means he will:

  • Either:

    • Surround with quotation marks, or

    • Put the quotation into his own words,

      changing the syntax, structure,

      & organization

  • Include a lead-in giving the sources name,

  • Give the page number, and

  • List the source in a bibliography

Do not cite the

source.

This means that the information is a

commonly reported fact. It is generally

known and available from many sources.

  • Jack should verify the information in at

    least two sources, then

  • Jack will write the well-known

    information in his own words.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

You must choose from the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


You are incorrect in this case citation is not necessary

You are incorrect.In this case, citation is not necessary.

  • Jack does not need to cite the source of quote the information because it is general knowledge.

  • Because Abraham Lincolns status as the 16th President of the US is a fact that is verifiable in many places, Jack can use the information without citation.


You are correct jack does not need to cite this information

You are correct!Jack does not need to cite this information.

  • Jack does not need to cite the source of quote the information because it is general knowledge.

  • Because Abraham Lincolns status as the 16th President of the US is a fact that is verifiable in many places, Jack can use the information without citation.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

Test Case #2

In her paper on Affirmative Action, Jill found one source explaining that Affirmative Action evens the field of play by wreaking equity on all players.

In her paper, Jill uses the phrase wreaking equity but she puts all the other parts of the source into her own words.

What should Jill do? Pick one of the answers below.

Cite the source.

This means she will:

  • Either:

    • Surround with quotation marks, or

    • Put the quotation into her own words,

      changing the syntax, structure,

      & organization

  • Include a lead-in giving the sources name,

  • Give the page number, and

  • List the source in a bibliography

Not cite the source.

This means that the information is generally

known and available from multiple sources.

  • Jill should verify the information in at

    least two sources, then

  • Jill will write the well-known

    information in his own words.

    (3)Jill should make a bibliographic citation

    for use on her Works Consulted page.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

You must choose from the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


You are correct jill must cite this information

You are correct!Jill must cite this information.

  • Jill needs to cite the source of the paraphrase because the idea belongs to the source.

  • Further, because Jill uses the unique phrase wreaking equity, she must include that phrase in quotation marks, indicating that it is a direct quotation from the source.


You are incorrect in this case citation is necessary

You are incorrect.In this case, citation is necessary.

  • Jill needs to cite the source of the paraphrase because the idea belongs to the source.

  • Further, because Jill uses the unique phrase wreaking equity, she must include that phrase in quotation marks, indicating that it is a direct quotation from the source.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

Test Case #3

Gretel found a very helpful article in an online database. She very carefully made sure that she rewrote the content of the article using her own personal style; she changed the authors syntax and organization so that it fit seamlessly into her paper.

What should Gretel do?

Cite the source.

This means she will:

  • Either:

    • Surround with quotation marks, or

    • Put the quotation into his own words,

      changing the syntax, structure,

      & organization

  • Include a lead-in giving the sources name,

  • Give the page number, and

  • List the source in a bibliography

Not cite the source.

This means that the information is generally

known and available from multiple sources.

  • Gretel should verify the information in at

    least two sources, then

  • Gretel will write the well-known

    information in his own words.

    (3) Gretel must include a bibliographic citation

    on her Works Consulted page.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

You must choose from the buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


You are correct in this case citation is required

You are correct.In this case, citation is required.

  • Gretel paraphrases the sources idea and content. She must give credit to the source.

  • She must provide her audience with the source of the idea that she borrowed.


Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

You are incorrect!Gretel must cite the source of this information, even though she put it in her own words.

  • Gretel paraphrases the ideas of the source, so she must cite the identity of the source.

  • Gretel must provide her audience with the source of the material that she borrowed.


So you can identify what must have a citation now you need to know how to use and cite a source

So, you can identify what must have a citationNow you need to know how to use and cite a source!


How to cite a source

How to Cite a Source

  • Its easy. Just provide your audience with the source of any ideas or words that are not your own.

    • First, carefully mark the beginning and end of the sources words or ideas.

    • Then, provide a bibliography to show where the borrowed material originated.

  • In fact, listing your sources shows your audience that you are an informed, well researched writer!


How to cite direct quotations

How to Cite Direct Quotations

  • Provide a bibliographic entry to show where the borrowed material originated.

    • Park, Beth L. Understanding Ayn Rands Anthem. Lebo University Press: Pittsburgh, 2008.

  • Carefully mark the beginning and end of the sources words or idea.

    • Use a signal phrase to introduce the source.

    • Use quotation marks to surround the words of the source.

    • Provide the page number (or another citation) after the closing quotation marks.

      EXAMPLE:

      According to literary critic Beth L. Parks, Equality 7-2521 finds peace through his search for the height of his own potential(24).


  • How to cite paraphrases

    How to Cite Paraphrases

    • Provide a bibliographic entry to show where the borrowed material originated.

      • Park, Beth L. Understanding Ayn Rands Anthem. Lebo University Press: Pittsburgh, 2008.

  • Carefully mark the beginning and end of the sources words or idea.

    • Use a signal phrase to introduce the source

    • Put the sources original words into your own words:

      • It isnt just about using synonyms to replace words.

      • You must change the syntax, sentence structure, and organization of the original.

      • If you find yourself just changing a word here or there, ask yourself if a direct quotation would work. If it would work, then use a direct quotation.

    • Provide the page number (or another citation) after the closing quotation marks.

      EXAMPLE:

      According to literary critic Beth L. Parks, Equality 7-2521 separates himself from the society by striving to improve

      the world around him (24).


  • It can be said in a bunch of different ways

    It can be said in a bunch of different ways

    Mark the

    boundaries


    It can be said in a bunch of different ways1

    It can be said in a bunch of different ways

    Mark the

    boundaries

    Bracket the

    borrowed


    It can be said in a bunch of different ways2

    It can be said in a bunch of different ways

    Fence the

    borders

    Mark the

    boundaries

    Bracket the

    borrowed


    It can be said in a bunch of different ways3

    It can be said in a bunch of different ways

    Fence the

    borders

    Mark the

    boundaries

    Bracket the

    borrowed

    Enclose the

    borrowed


    It can be said in a bunch of different ways4

    It can be said in a bunch of different ways

    Frame the

    usage

    Fence the

    borders

    Mark the

    boundaries

    Bracket the

    borrowed

    Enclose the

    borrowed


    It can be said in a bunch of different ways5

    It can be said in a bunch of different ways

    Frame the

    usage

    Fence the

    borders

    Mark the

    boundaries

    Bracket the

    borrowed

    Enclose the

    borrowed

    Surround

    the usage


    It can be said in a bunch of different ways6

    It can be said in a bunch of different ways

    Frame the

    usage

    Fence the

    borders

    Mark the

    boundaries

    But, they all mean the same thing

    Provide a clear indication

    of any words or ideas

    that are not your own.

    Bracket the

    borrowed

    Enclose the

    borrowed

    Circumscribe

    the usage


    Final directions

    Final Directions:

    • Your teacher has a short written quiz for you to take on the subject of plagiarism.

    • At the end of the quiz is an honor code statement. You will sign it in order to verify that you have received this training.

    • You will then have your parent sign the honor code.

    • Your English teacher will collect these signed forms.


    Sources cited

    Sources Cited

    Harris, Robert A. The Plagiarism Handbook: Strategies for Preventing, Detecting, and Dealing with Plagiarism. Pyrczak Publishing: Los Angeles, 2001.


    Works consulted

    Works Consulted

    DeSena, Laura Hennessey. Preventing Plagiarism: Tips and Techniques. National Council of Teachers of English: Urbana, IL, 2007.

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman. What is Plagiarism? (And Why You Should Care). Springfield High School Media Center Information Literacy Lessons. Springfield School District.


    End of presentation

    End of presentation.

    • If you have questions or suggestions, please see your teacher or e-mail Ms. Kramer ([email protected]) or Mrs. Miller ([email protected]), the creators of this presentation.


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