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Using Sources in your Work: A Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism English I. Agenda for Tutorial. Read three sample situations. Determine if the student was ethical in his or her use of a source. Learn more about how to avoid plagiarism. Take a quiz to verify your understanding.

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Using sources in your work a tutorial on avoiding plagiarism english i

Using Sources in your Work:A Tutorial on Avoiding PlagiarismEnglish I


Agenda for tutorial
Agenda for Tutorial

  • Read three sample situations. Determine if the student was ethical in his or her use of a source.

  • Learn more about how to avoid plagiarism.

  • Take a quiz to verify your understanding.

  • Pledge that you will not plagiarize.


Let’s look at some hypothetical situations.For each, identify if the student used his or her sources acceptably.


Jack s situation
Jack’s Situation

Jack has an English paper due tomorrow. He read the book and paid attention during class, but he has no idea what to write about.

Jack logs onto the Internet “just to get some ideas about topics for his paper.”

He finds a great idea and begins writing his paper using the topic he found. He is very careful to avoid copying any text or words from the Internet article he found.

Is this plagiarism?

Yes

No


You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


You said jack did plagiarize
You said… page.Jack did plagiarize.

You are right. Jack’s actions constitute plagiarism.

  • Jack is committing plagiarism by taking the ideas of the source without citing them in the paper.

  • Even though he put the ideas in his own words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property of the source.


You said jack did not plagiarize
You said… page.Jack did not plagiarize.

You are wrong. Jack’s actions constitute plagiarism.

  • Jack is committing plagiarism by taking the ideas of the source without citing them in the paper.

  • Even though he put the ideas in his own words, Jack is stealing the intellectual property of the source. You are wrong. Jack’s actions constitute plagiarism.

  • He could avoid plagiarism if he cites the source of the ideas in his paper.


Jill s situation
Jill’s Situation page.

During history class, Jill is asked to find some background on Fidel Castro’s rise to power.

Jill does a Google search and arrives at Wikipedia’s article on Fidel Castro. Without using quotation marks, Jill cuts and pastes several sentences from Wikipedia into her assignment.

Is this plagiarism?

Yes

No


You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


You said jill did plagiarize
You said… page.Jill did plagiarize.

You are right. Jill’s actions constitute plagiarism.

  • By taking the words from the Wikipedia article, Jill is committing plagiarism.

  • She can avoid plagiarizing if she quotes the article in her assignment and includes an entry describing the source in a bibliography at the end of her paper.


You said jill did not plagiarize
You said… page.Jill did not plagiarize.

You are wrong. Jill’s actions constitute plagiarism.

  • By taking the words from the Wikipedia article, Jill is committing plagiarism.

  • She can avoid plagiarizing if she quotes the article in her assignment and includes an entry describing the source in a bibliography at the end of her paper.


Gretel s situation
Gretel’s Situation page.

Gretel is a freshman who feels overwhelmed by the high school. When her science teacher assigns a short worksheet on genetics, Gretel is confused and frustrated.

During lunch, Gretel “borrows” her friend’s paper and copies the answers onto her own paper.

Is this plagiarism?

Yes

No


You must choose from the blue buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


You said gretel did plagiarize
You said… page.Gretel did plagiarize.

You are right. Gretel’s actions constitute plagiarism.

  • Even if Gretel’s friend gave permission for Gretel to copy her work, it is still plagiarism.

  • Gretel is guilty of plagiarism. She tried to take credit for the words and ideas of another person.


You said gretel did not plagiarize
You said… page.Gretel did not plagiarize.

You are wrong. Gretel’s actions constitute plagiarism.

  • Even if Gretel’s friend gave permission for Gretel to copy her work, it is still plagiarism.

  • Gretel tried to take credit for the words and ideas of another person.


Think you ve got it read the following and remember there will be a short quiz on this material

Think you’ve got it? page.Read the following…(and remember, there will be a short quiz on this material!)


There are two acceptable ways to use sources
There are two acceptable ways page. to use sources:

  • Direct Quotation

  • Paraphrase

    • Includes summarizing and referencing the works of others within your paper or project


There are two acceptable ways to use sources1
There are two acceptable ways page. to use sources:

Direct Quotation

  • What it is:

    • The exact words of an author used word for word in your paper or project.

  • When to use it:

    • The exact phrasing of the source suits your needs.

    • You want to use the source’s exact words—even just a particular apt or unusual phrase.

  • How to use it:

    • Copy the exact words of the source, putting those words inside quotation marks.

    • Put a citation at the end of the quotation indicating the page number.

    • At the end of your paper, include a bibliographic entry on a page that lists your references.


There are two acceptable ways to use sources2
There are two acceptable ways page. to use sources:

Paraphrase

  • What it is:

    • Using your own words to restate the source’s idea. This could be a summary of the source’s point, a brief mention of the source’s findings, or a longer restatement of the source’s idea.

  • Use paraphrase when:

    • The exact phrasing of the source is too technical, too wordy, etc.

    • You want to present the source’s idea in a more compact, focused way

  • How to use it:

    • Before the paraphrase, introduce the source. This will show where the paraphrase begins.

    • Use your own words to restate the meaning of the source. This means you change words, structure, and syntax. You do not merely substitute synonyms for the source’s original phrasing.

    • Put a citation at the end of the quotation indicating the page number or source.

    • Include a bibliographic entry on a reference page at

      the end of your paper or project.


Testing your understanding
Testing your understanding… page.

Can you tell the difference between a direct quotation and a paraphrase?

Click on the correct answer for each of the following samples.


Direct quotation vs paraphrase model 1
Direct Quotation vs. Paraphrase page.Model #1

In his book on Google’s business strategy, John Battelle states, “…Google had more than its finger on the pulse of our culture, it was directly jacked into the culture’s nervous system” (2).

This is an example of

DIRECT QUOTATION

This is an example of

PARAPHRASE


You must choose from the buttons at the bottom of the page. page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


Paraphrase
Paraphrase page.

Sorry, no. You are incorrect.

The student did not paraphrase--she used a direct quotation. The quotation marks give it away:

In his book on Google’s business strategy, John Battelle states: “…Google had more than its finger on the pulse of our culture, it was directly jacked into the culture’s nervous system” (2).


Direct quotation
Direct Quotation page.

  • Easy, right? If you see quotation marks, it is a direct quotation.

  • Any time you use the exact words of a source, you must surround them in quotation marks and indicate the source.


Direct Quotation vs. Paraphrase page.Model #2

Battelle’s argument is based on a memo written by Google CEO Eric Schmidt. The memo reveals that Google was focusing its attention on corporate marketing budgets (153).

This is an example of

DIRECT QUOTATION

This is an example of

PARAPHRASE


You must choose from the green buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


Paraphrase1
Paraphrase page.

Good job! Sample #2 was a paraphrase.

Anytime a student rewrites a source’s idea into his or her own words, the user must give the source credit. This is paraphrasing.


Direct quotation1
Direct Quotation page.

No. Read it again:

Battelle’s argument is based on a memo written by Google CEO Eric Schmidt. The memo reveals that Google was focusing its attention on corporate marketing budgets (153).

That example is a paraphrase.

You should know because the student did not include quotation marks; she rephrased the original into her own written style; and she cited the source.


Direct Quotation vs. Paraphrase page.Model #3

As he explains the importance of choosing the best searchable keywords to allow others to find a website, Battelle presents a comparison to the Greek story of The Odyssey, “Is [being known to a wide audience] not what every person longs for—what Odysseus chose over Kalypso’s nameless immortality—to die, but to be known forever?” (284).

This is an example of

DIRECT QUOTATION

This is an example of

PARAPHRASE


You must choose from the green buttons at the bottom of the page.Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


Paraphrase2
Paraphrase page.

  • You are incorrect. The example was a direct quotation. Look at it again:

    In explaining the importance of searchable functions, Battelle reveals his insight into the heart of mankind, “Is that not what every person longs for—what Odysseus chose over Kalypso’s nameless immortality—to die, but to be known forever?” (284).

  • The student included quotation marks, indicating that he used the exact words of the original source. Therefore, it is a direct quotation.


Direct quotation2
Direct Quotation page.

  • Correct!

  • The use of the exact words of the source makes it a direct quotation.

  • The student shows readers that it is a direct quotation by using quotation marks.

  • Additionally, he provides information to help the reader identify the source.



Definition of plagiarism
Definition of Plagiarism paraphrase…

  • Plagiarism is:

    • To steal the words or ideas of another person

    • To pass off the words or ideas of another person as one’s own

  • Further:

    • It does not matter whether the theft of words or ideas is intentional or accidental.

    • Either way, it is plagiarism.


Why should you bother
Why should you bother? paraphrase…

Four good reasons for citing sources in your work:

  • Citing reliable information gives credibility to your work.

  • Cheating is unethical behavior.

  • It is only fair to give credit to the source—otherwise, you are stealing the source’s ideas.

  • The consequences are severe—plagiarism is not worth the risk.


You probably have two questions 1 what do i need to cite 2 how do i cite read on for the answers

You probably have two questions: paraphrase…(1)What do I need to cite?(2) How do I cite?Read on for the answers…


What do i need to cite

Did you paraphrase…

think of

it?

Yes.

No.

Is it

common

knowledge?

Yes.

No.

Do not cite it.

Cite it.

What do I need to cite?

  • This chart will help you decide what must be cited.

    • It was created by Robert A. Harris in The Plagiarism Handbook.


Did you paraphrase…

think of

it?

Yes.

No.

Is it

common

knowledge?

Yes.

No.

Do not cite it.

Cite it.

So—the rule is:If you created it,you do not need to cite the source.If you did not create the content, you must cite the source.


Did you paraphrase…

think of

it?

Yes.

No.

Is it

common

knowledge?

Yes.

No.

Do not cite it.

Cite it.

The one exception to that rule is for “common knowledge.”You do not need to cite the source of an unoriginal piece of information IF:(1) an educated person should know the information, OR(2) it is a provable fact that could be found in a general encyclopedia.


So, you don’t need to cite a fact, paraphrase…but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own.And, you must cite any time you use the exact words of the source—even if the words are presenting common knowledge.


So, you don’t need to cite a fact, paraphrase…for example: Ayn Rand wrote Anthem.OR Ayn Rand was born in 1905.but you must cite the source of opinions and ideas that are not your own.for example: Dorothy Gale believed that Anthem is an inspiring story (75).OR According to Joe Smith, Equality 7-2521 represents the human spirit (15).And, you must cite any time you use the exact words of the source—even if the words are presenting common knowledge.You must always cite the source of ANY direct quotation.


Take one more look at this chart if the idea and the words are yours you do not need to cite

Did you paraphrase…

think of

it?

Yes.

No.

Is it

common

knowledge?

Yes.

No.

Do not cite it.

Cite it.

Take one more look at this chart!If the idea and the words are yours, you do not need to cite.


So, let’s check to see that you understand when you need to cite the source and when you don’t…Answer the following questions and choose the correct answer.


Test Case #1 to cite the source and when you don’t…

Jack isn’t sure if he needs to cite the source of the information below. He found the fact online.

“Abraham Lincoln was our 16th president.”

What do you think? What should Jack do? Pick one of the answers below.

Cite the source.

This means he will:

  • Either:

    • Surround with quotation marks, or

    • Put the quotation into his own words,

      changing the syntax, structure,

      & organization

  • Include a lead-in giving the source’s name,

  • Give the page number, and

  • List the source in a bibliography

Do not cite the

source.

This means that the information is a

commonly reported fact. It is generally

known and available from many sources.

  • Jack should verify the information in at

    least two sources, then

  • Jack will write the well-known

    information in his own words.


You must choose from the buttons at the bottom of the page. to cite the source and when you don’t…Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


You are incorrect in this case citation is not necessary
You are incorrect. to cite the source and when you don’t…In this case, citation is not necessary.

  • Jack does not need to cite the source of quote the information because it is general knowledge.

  • Because Abraham Lincoln’s status as the 16th President of the US is a fact that is verifiable in many places, Jack can use the information without citation.


You are correct jack does not need to cite this information
You are correct! to cite the source and when you don’t…Jack does not need to cite this information.

  • Jack does not need to cite the source of quote the information because it is general knowledge.

  • Because Abraham Lincoln’s status as the 16th President of the US is a fact that is verifiable in many places, Jack can use the information without citation.


Test Case #2 to cite the source and when you don’t…

In her paper on Affirmative Action, Jill found one source explaining that Affirmative Action “evens the field of play by wreaking equity on all players.”

In her paper, Jill uses the phrase “wreaking equity” but she puts all the other parts of the source into her own words.

What should Jill do? Pick one of the answers below.

Cite the source.

This means she will:

  • Either:

    • Surround with quotation marks, or

    • Put the quotation into her own words,

      changing the syntax, structure,

      & organization

  • Include a lead-in giving the source’s name,

  • Give the page number, and

  • List the source in a bibliography

Not cite the source.

This means that the information is generally

known and available from multiple sources.

  • Jill should verify the information in at

    least two sources, then

  • Jill will write the well-known

    information in his own words.

    (3) Jill should make a bibliographic citation

    for use on her Works Consulted page.


You must choose from the buttons at the bottom of the page. to cite the source and when you don’t…Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


You are correct jill must cite this information
You are correct! to cite the source and when you don’t…Jill must cite this information.

  • Jill needs to cite the source of the paraphrase because the idea belongs to the source.

  • Further, because Jill uses the unique phrase “wreaking equity,” she must include that phrase in quotation marks, indicating that it is a direct quotation from the source.


You are incorrect in this case citation is necessary
You are incorrect. to cite the source and when you don’t…In this case, citation is necessary.

  • Jill needs to cite the source of the paraphrase because the idea belongs to the source.

  • Further, because Jill uses the unique phrase “wreaking equity,” she must include that phrase in quotation marks, indicating that it is a direct quotation from the source.


Test Case #3 to cite the source and when you don’t…

Gretel found a very helpful article in an online database. She very carefully made sure that she rewrote the content of the article using her own personal style; she changed the author’s syntax and organization so that it fit seamlessly into her paper.

What should Gretel do?

Cite the source.

This means she will:

  • Either:

    • Surround with quotation marks, or

    • Put the quotation into his own words,

      changing the syntax, structure,

      & organization

  • Include a lead-in giving the source’s name,

  • Give the page number, and

  • List the source in a bibliography

Not cite the source.

This means that the information is generally

known and available from multiple sources.

  • Gretel should verify the information in at

    least two sources, then

  • Gretel will write the well-known

    information in his own words.

    (3) Gretel must include a bibliographic citation

    on her Works Consulted page.


You must choose from the buttons at the bottom of the page. to cite the source and when you don’t…Read the situation and then choose one of the options presented.

Click here to

return to previous slide


You are correct in this case citation is required
You are correct. to cite the source and when you don’t…In this case, citation is required.

  • Gretel paraphrases the source’s idea and content. She must give credit to the source.

  • She must provide her audience with the source of the idea that she borrowed.


You are incorrect! to cite the source and when you don’t…Gretel must cite the source of this information, even though she put it in her own words.

  • Gretel paraphrases the ideas of the source, so she must cite the identity of the source.

  • Gretel must provide her audience with the source of the material that she borrowed.


So you can identify what must have a citation now you need to know how to use and cite a source

So, you can identify what must have a citation… to cite the source and when you don’t…Now you need to know how to use and cite a source!


How to cite a source
How to Cite a Source to cite the source and when you don’t…

  • It’s easy. Just provide your audience with the source of any ideas or words that are not your own.

    • First, carefully mark the beginning and end of the source’s words or ideas.

    • Then, provide a bibliography to show where the borrowed material originated.

  • In fact, listing your sources shows your audience that you are an informed, well researched writer!


How to cite direct quotations
How to Cite Direct Quotations to cite the source and when you don’t…

  • Provide a bibliographic entry to show where the borrowed material originated.

    • Park, Beth L. Understanding Ayn Rand’s Anthem. Lebo University Press: Pittsburgh, 2008.

  • Carefully mark the beginning and end of the source’s words or idea.

    • Use a signal phrase to introduce the source.

    • Use quotation marks to surround the words of the source.

    • Provide the page number (or another citation) after the closing quotation marks.

      EXAMPLE:

      According to literary critic Beth L. Parks, Equality 7-2521 finds peace through “his search for the height of his own potential”(24).


  • How to cite paraphrases
    How to Cite Paraphrases to cite the source and when you don’t…

    • Provide a bibliographic entry to show where the borrowed material originated.

      • Park, Beth L. Understanding Ayn Rand’s Anthem. Lebo University Press: Pittsburgh, 2008.

  • Carefully mark the beginning and end of the source’s words or idea.

    • Use a signal phrase to introduce the source

    • Put the source’s original words into your own words:

      • It isn’t just about using synonyms to replace words.

      • You must change the syntax, sentence structure, and organization of the original.

      • If you find yourself just changing a word here or there, ask yourself if a direct quotation would work. If it would work, then use a direct quotation.

    • Provide the page number (or another citation) after the closing quotation marks.

      EXAMPLE:

      According to literary critic Beth L. Parks, Equality 7-2521 separates himself from the society by striving to improve

      the world around him (24).


  • It can be said in a bunch of different ways
    It can be said in a bunch of different ways… to cite the source and when you don’t…

    Mark the

    boundaries


    It can be said in a bunch of different ways1
    It can be said in a bunch of different ways… to cite the source and when you don’t…

    Mark the

    boundaries

    Bracket the

    borrowed


    It can be said in a bunch of different ways2
    It can be said in a bunch of different ways… to cite the source and when you don’t…

    Fence the

    borders

    Mark the

    boundaries

    Bracket the

    borrowed


    It can be said in a bunch of different ways3
    It can be said in a bunch of different ways… to cite the source and when you don’t…

    Fence the

    borders

    Mark the

    boundaries

    Bracket the

    borrowed

    Enclose the

    borrowed


    It can be said in a bunch of different ways4
    It can be said in a bunch of different ways… to cite the source and when you don’t…

    Frame the

    usage

    Fence the

    borders

    Mark the

    boundaries

    Bracket the

    borrowed

    Enclose the

    borrowed


    It can be said in a bunch of different ways5
    It can be said in a bunch of different ways… to cite the source and when you don’t…

    Frame the

    usage

    Fence the

    borders

    Mark the

    boundaries

    Bracket the

    borrowed

    Enclose the

    borrowed

    Surround

    the usage


    It can be said in a bunch of different ways6
    It can be said in a bunch of different ways… to cite the source and when you don’t…

    Frame the

    usage

    Fence the

    borders

    Mark the

    boundaries

    But, they all mean the same thing…

    Provide a clear indication

    of any words or ideas

    that are not your own.

    Bracket the

    borrowed

    Enclose the

    borrowed

    Circumscribe

    the usage


    Final directions
    Final Directions: to cite the source and when you don’t…

    • Your teacher has a short written quiz for you to take on the subject of plagiarism.

    • At the end of the quiz is an honor code statement. You will sign it in order to verify that you have received this training.

    • You will then have your parent sign the honor code.

    • Your English teacher will collect these signed forms.


    Sources cited
    Sources Cited to cite the source and when you don’t…

    Harris, Robert A. The Plagiarism Handbook: Strategies for Preventing, Detecting, and Dealing with Plagiarism. Pyrczak Publishing: Los Angeles, 2001.


    Works consulted
    Works Consulted to cite the source and when you don’t…

    DeSena, Laura Hennessey. Preventing Plagiarism: Tips and Techniques. National Council of Teachers of English: Urbana, IL, 2007.

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman. “What is Plagiarism? (And Why You Should Care).” Springfield High School Media Center Information Literacy Lessons. Springfield School District.


    End of presentation
    End of presentation. to cite the source and when you don’t…

    • If you have questions or suggestions, please see your teacher or e-mail Ms. Kramer ([email protected]) or Mrs. Miller ([email protected]), the creators of this presentation.


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