Bio 230 evolution ii
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Bio. 230 --- Evolution II. Evolutionary Advances (I). 1) CELL COMPLEXITY Prokaryote ----------> Eukaryote  2) ORGANISM COMPLEXITY Unicellular ---> Colonial ---> Multicellular 3) ORGANISM SIZE Smaller -------> Larger [?? ---------> Less Large]

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Bio. 230 --- Evolution II

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Bio 230 evolution ii

Bio. 230 --- Evolution II


Evolutionary advances i

Evolutionary Advances (I)

1) CELL COMPLEXITYProkaryote ----------> Eukaryote

 2) ORGANISM COMPLEXITYUnicellular ---> Colonial ---> Multicellular

3) ORGANISM SIZESmaller -------> Larger [?? ---------> Less Large]

 4) ORGANISM LIFESPANShort --------> Longer [?? ----------> Shorter]

 5) TYPE OF NUTRITIONHeterotrophic ----------> Autotrophic

 6) GENOME CONTENT Haploid -------> Diploid

7) TYPE OF NUCLEAR DIVISION PROCESS Mitosis Meiosis (Zygotic, Gametic, Sporic)


Evolutionary advances ii

Evolutionary Advances (II)

8) TYPE OF LIFE CYCLEHaplobiontic Haploid   Diplobiontic Isomorphic Haplobiontic Diploid   Diplobiontic Heteromorphic

  9) MODE OF REPRODUCTIONAsexual --------> Sexual [?? ----------> Asexual]

 10) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION AS REGARDS GAMETE DIFFERENTIATIONIsogamy --------> Anisogamy --------> Oogamy

 11) NUMBER OF OFFSPRINGMANY ----------> FEW

 12) PROTECTION GIVEN REPRODUCTIVE PROCESS:NONE ----> MUCH


Cell complexity i

Cell Complexity (I)

Prokaryote to Eukaryote --- 1.5+ bya

Serial Endosymbiosis Theory (SET)

??? Motility before nucleus ??? (? one origin ?)

Nucleus --- endogenous origin in a thermoplasma type archean

Mitochondrion --- from an aerobic bacterium (? one origin ?)

Chloroplasts --- at least three separate origins


Cell complexity ii

Cell Complexity (II)

Motility Structures

Flagella in prokaryotes

Flagella and cilia (? Undulipodia) in eukaryotes

NOT the same thing as in prokaryotes

Why use different names?

Are undulipodia derived from spirochete bacteria?

Did motility (undulipodia) come before the nucleus?


Set lynn margulis

SET (Lynn Margulis)


Primary endosymbiosis

Primary Endosymbiosis


Secondary endosymbiosis

Secondary Endosymbiosis


Organism complexity

Organism Complexity

Unicellular

Colonial

Multicellular

Advantages? Specialization

Organisms do not always get more complex (e.g. – yeast, some parasites)


Organism size

Organism Size

Generally smaller to larger

BUT sometimes larger to smaller

Advantages of being smaller?

Smaller habitats / fewer resources needed

Shorter life cycle (more chance for genetic change) (? faster evolution ?)


Organism life span

Organism Life Span

Generally shorter to longer

BUT sometimes longer to shorter

Advantages of shorter life span?

Reach reproductive maturity sooner

Go through more generations in a shorter period of time

Thus more chance for genetic change) (? faster evolution ?)


Type of nutrition

Type of Nutrition

SEE HANDOUT

3.5+ bya --- heterotrophic (anaerobic)

??? --- anaerobic chemoautotrophs

3.0+ bya --- Type I photoautotrophs

2.8+ bya --- Type II photoautotrophs

??? --- aerobic heterotrophs

??? --- aerobic chemoautotrophs


Chemoautotrophism

Chemoautotrophism

ANAEROBIC -- Methanogens -- Domain Archaea

 XH + CO2 ---> XCOOH ---> XCHO ----*-----> XCH3 ------#---------> CH3

*Some energy release # methylcobalamin + HSO3(CH2)2SH

(X is an unknown carrier molecule)

AEROBIC -– Domain Bacteria

Nitrosomonas spp. (Nitrifying Bacteria)

NH4 + 2O2 -----> 2H2O + NO2- + energy

Nitrobacter spp. (Nitrifying Bacteria)

2NO2- + O2 -----> 2NO3- + energy

Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans (Iron Bacteria)

4FeCO3 + O2 + 6H2O -----> Fe(OH)3 + 4CO2 + energy

Thiobacillus thioxidans (non-photosynthetic Sulfur Bacteria)

2S + 3O2 + 2H2O -----> 2H2SO4 + energy


Photoautotrophism

Photoautotrophism

light

CO2 + 2H2X -------> (CH2O) + H2O + 2X

Type I Photosynthesis (non-oxygenic):

light

CO2 + 2H2S -------> (CH2O) + H2O + 2S

Type II Photosynthesis (oxygenic):

light

CO2 + 2H2O -------> (CH2O) + H2O + O2


Genome content

Genome Content

Haploid (n) to Diploid (2n)

Terms refer to nuclear content

Advantages of Diploidy?


Type of nuclear process

Type of Nuclear Process

Mitosis (1.5+ bya)

What does mitosis do?

A ‘conservative’ division

Meiosis (1.2+ bya)

What does meiosis do?

Sexually reproducing organisms MUST have meiosis somewhere in their life cycle!

Meiosis & sexual reproduction make for VARIATION!


Mode of reproduction

Mode of Reproduction

Asexual to sexual

BUT, sexual to asexual in some cases

Advantages / disadvantages of sex? Or Why is variation “good” and why is it “bad”?

Advantages of haplodiploidy?


Complexity of life cycle i

Complexity of Life Cycle (I)

Haplobiontic Haploid (has zygotic meiosis)

Haplobiontic Diploid (has gametic meiosis)

Diplobiontic (has sporic meiosis) -- isomorphic or heteromorphic -- in heteromorphic either the n or 2n phase can be the dominant one


Haplobiontic haploid life cycle

Haplobiontic Haploid Life Cycle


Haplobiontic diploid life cycle

Haplobiontic Diploid Life Cycle


Diplobiontic life cycle

Diplobiontic Life Cycle


Gamete differentiation

Gamete Differentiation

Isogamy

Anisogamy

Oogamy


Number of offspring protection given to reproduction

Number of Offspring /Protection Given to Reproduction

Many

Usually with little or no care; often with external fertilization

Few

Usually with considerable care; usually with internal fertilization


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