6 th Grade Social Studies, Geography Terms: Part II,. GLE’s G-1B-M2, M3, M4; G-1C-M1, M2, M3 & M4 Physical features affecting settlement and physical processes that affect regions. G-1B-M2. Key Terms:. Island Conditions : Conditions as if surrounded, specifically by water.
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GLE’s G-1B-M2, M3, M4; G-1C-M1, M2, M3 & M4 Physical features affecting settlement and physical processes that affect regions.
Oceans: Any of the five (four in some lists) principle divisions of huge salt water bodies encompassing MOST of earth’s surface, they include:
The Russian Winter! With temperatures well below zero for weeks at a time, and snow piled so high they covered houses, it was just too much for his freezing men to handle—and it was here that Napoleon’s dreams of world conquest for France came to an abrupt halt!
This scene is from the battle for Stalingrad—Winter 1943. Tens of thousands of German soldiers froze in the biting cold weather. Even Russians weren’t exempt from being casualties of their own bitter weather.
These made Western Italy (Rome) almost an “island”, it made them “remote” and hard to reach by any invading army (such as the Carthaginians in the Punic Wars.) These mountains created a natural barrier that served to protect Rome.
Migration of the Sahara: The Sahara is the world’s largest desert, and it is growing, spreading—mostly due to poor land use at its edges, lower precipitation in the region and dying off of vegetation—this spreading and growing is called its migration.
Here is a map of northern Africa, notice the gray central area, this was once a watershed for dried up ancient rivers. The Sahara has, since the last glacial ice age been growing and spreading across the whole of north Africa; only rivers that still cut through it, interrupt its vast expanse. It is also held by many that “human” migration came through the Sahara.
Coastal Storms: Are so named because they strike coastal areas, along a boundary between a land mass and a large body of water. They generally come in two kinds: Ice—storms that usually come across a coastline with a frigid or polar cold front bringing severe and dangerous ice storms; they are often called Nor’easters. Wind—the most commonly known is the tropical storms which include hurricanes, cyclones and typhoons which bring heavy rains and strong winds, and severe damage to the coastal areas they strike.
Coastal storms need no explanations to those who have experienced them. Left are conditions for a Nor’easter, shown on the right.
The monster storm below is a satellite image of Katrina filling up 1/3 of the Gulf of Mexico before landfall.
Katrina was a coastal storm—a Hurricane, but not hardly typical. It was a Category 5 monster storm, that to this date is the most devastating storm of any kind to hit the United States in terms of damage. More typical are tropical storms, depressions, and the smaller hurricanes—all of which can still do damage through combinations of wind, rain, and water (surge).
The world’s rainforests are disappearing because of development and industry. They are priceless sources of resources and must be preserved.
The coyote’s habitat was despoiled when spillways poured river water in, forcing them into urban areas where dozens were killed.
Yosemite National Park is one of our most beautiful regions, it is largely for its “Aesthetic” beauty, that it is being, conserved.
Wind Patterns: The movement of winds worldwide redistributes the sun’s heat over the earth’s surface. In each of the latitude zones, temperature and pressure combine to create a pattern of prevailing winds. The doldrums are light unpredictable winds between the equator and 30 degrees north and south. The trade winds blow between the 30 N and 30 S but from different directions. They blow from the NE in the northern Hemisphere and SE in the southern hemisphere; they are also called “easterlies”. The Westerlies blow from the SW in the northern hemisphere and from the NW in the southern, between 30 and 60. The polar easterly winds blow from the NE in the arctic and from the SE from the antarctic.
Ocean Currents: Waters of the oceans help to distribute the sun’s heat. Warm ocean currents carry warm waters from the tropics to the poles. Cold ocean currents return cold water from the poles to the equator. The Gulf Stream is a famous warm ocean current.
Hurricanes: destructive tropical storms that form over the Atlantic Ocean, usually in late summer and early fall, with winds of at least 74 mph.
Early Migration and Settlement:As early man migrated out of Africa and began settling new lands, he settled in places that were suitable for food production. These areas were usually in a river valley (Tigris and Euphrates, Nile, Indus, or Huang-He. River valleys provided a fresh water source for both drinking and irrigation; suitable ground for hunting and later fertile soil for farming. Early man also sought to settle in areas that were well protected from enemy invasions, such as mountain ranges—all these factors played a role in man’s “early migration—and settlement.
The Impact of Settlement: As early man began to settle and produce his own food, he relied less on the nomadic lifestyle. He was able to concentrate less on finding food and focus more on other skills and ideas. This led to specialization, and division of labor.
Wood is used for lumber, paper and many other useful purposes. Since trees can be replanted and regrown, this is an excellent example of a renewable resource.
Petroleum, or oil products can not be replaced in anything like a reasonable span of time—as they’ve taken millions of years to form. These products are examples of non-renewable resources.
Cattle can be replaced; but are not readily available wherever humans live, and in some places they are “sacred”. As a result they are considered a “limited” resource.
Once man had been able to set down roots (settle in ONE place), and farming developed to where they had a SURPLUS of food, they could then have people who didn’t need to work on hunting and gathering tasks alone. NOW people could “specialize” in OTHER jobs. This is “Specialization”. Some could become pottery makers, others could weave cloth, others could make mud bricks, be construction workers, and others become priests of their developing religions. This was known as “Division of Labor”!
This diagram illustrates how the continents have slid, and moved along those plates in what we now know as “continental drift” The supercontinent when they were all joined at the top left is called Pangaea. From there the continents broke off into two other supercontinents: Gondwanaland, and Laurasia—which further broke up into the continents as we know them today.
The above map shows the boundaries of the major “plates” of Earth are found. The line cutting down the Atlantic Ocean is where the plates are actually moving AWAY from each other—this is because of “Sea-floor spreading”. The red dots are where the most active volcanoes on Earth are found—you will notice how they tend to be along the plate lines!