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Operating Systems I. Managing Your Disks. Primary Learning Objective. Execute Routine Disk Management Techniques. Specific Learning Objectives. Identify and define the terms associated with disk management Identify and rename a disk Determine the size and free space available on a disk.

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Operating Systems I

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Operating systems i

Operating Systems I

Managing Your Disks

Primary learning objective

Primary Learning Objective

Execute Routine Disk Management Techniques

Specific learning objectives

Specific Learning Objectives

  • Identify and define the terms associated with disk management

  • Identify and rename a disk

  • Determine the size and free space available on a disk.

  • Format a disk using the GUI and FORMAT command

  • Copy a floppy disk using the GUI and DISKCOPY command

Specific learning objectives1

Specific Learning Objectives

  • Describe disk maintenance processes such as Defrag, Scandisk, Disk Cleanup, and Scheduling Utilities

  • Describe the backup process on an individual computer

  • Use the VOL, Label, XCOPY, and DIR commands for disk management

Operating systems i

Floppy Disk Storage

A floppy disk is a round piece of flexible mylar plastic covered with a thin layer of magnetic oxide.

The platters, the actual disks inside the hard drive that store the magnetized data, have traditionally been made of a light aluminum alloy and coated with a magnetizable ferrite compound

Operating systems i

Floppy Disk Storage

3.5” Floppy disk


indicator hole



Drive hub


access cover

Operating systems i

Before the data is stored, particles are randomly scattered

The read-write head

Magnetizing the particles

Operating systems i

Formatting creates a series of concentric tracks

Operating systems i

One sector on a track holds 512 bytes of data.

The tracks on a

disk are divided

into wedge-shaped




  • One or more sectors used by an operating system as the minimum storage space for a file or a part of a file when it allocates storage space on a drive to a file.

  • Also call an allocation unit.

Drive properties

Drive Properties

  • How do you access a drive’s properties?

  • The properties dialog box has several functions besides giving us the name, size, and amount of free space. Some include:

    • Access disk maintenance tools

    • Provide hardware information and troubleshooting

    • Enable sharing and security

Disk information in cli

Disk Information in CLI

  • VOL – Displays the disk volume label and serial number, if they exist.

  • Label – Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label of a disk.

  • DIR – Displays the number of files and directories in the current directory and the amount of free space on the drive.

  • CHKDSK - Checks a disk and displays a status report.

Format a disk

Format a Disk

  • Before use a disk must be formatted so data can be saved on it.

  • Formatting options include:

    • Quick(Erases all information from the disk, but doesn't scan the disk for damaged areas. Only works on disks that have previously been formatted.)

    • Enable Compression(only on NTFS drives)

    • Create an MS-DOS startup disk

  • In CLI, use FORMAT (/s makes a bootable disk and /Q is for a quick format)

Copy a floppy disk

Copy a Floppy Disk

  • Used to make an exact copy of the source floppy disk

  • The disks must be the same type and density

  • All information on the destination floppy will be deleted.

  • Open MY Computer or Windows Explorer and right-click on the floppy drive and selct Copy Disk

  • In CLI, use the DISKCOPY command


Disk maintenance

Disk Maintenance

  • Computers require routing maintenance to keep them running at peak performance and to correct/prevent problems.

  • Some of these tasks include defragmenting, fixing errors on your hard disk, and freeing up space on your hard disk and backing up and restoring information on the hard disk.

  • You must be logged on as the computer’s administrator to complete these tasks.

Disk defragmenter

Disk Defragmenter

  • Fragmentation occurs when the files on a disk are divided into pieces scattered around the disk. It occurs naturally when you modifying files frequently.

  • Where do you find the defrag tool?

  • Open My Computer/Explorer, right-click on a drive, select Properties, click the Tools tab, and click Defragment Now button. System Tools

  • In CLI, type DEFRAG







Disk defragmenter do s and don t s

Disk Defragmenter Do’s and Don’t’s

  • The process can take up to several hours

  • Touching Windows will cause Disk Defragmenter to start over.

  • Run Error-checking first since you can’t defrag a disk containing errors

  • In XP, it optimizes your disk by placing the programs you use most often a the beginning of the hard drive.

Repairing disk errors

Repairing Disk Errors

  • Normal wear and tear causes errors to appear on your hard drive which affects performance

  • Error-checking, a hard drive repair program, can diagnose and easily fix most of the damage

  • To use: Tools tab of Properties or System Tools

  • There are two types of tests:

    • “Automatically fix errors”

    • “Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors”

Error checking


Freeing up space

Freeing Up Space

  • Over time Windows creates unnecessary files that take up space. See Table 5-1 on page 147

  • Open My Computer/Explorer, right-click on a drive, select Properties, click the General tab, and click Disk Cleanup button. System Tools

  • Other options to free up space:

    • Remove unnecessary programs

    • Remove unnecessary Windows components

Disk cleanup utility

Disk Cleanup Utility



  • Common causes for loss of data include user errors, hardware/software failure, and damage by viruses

  • A backup is a copy of data or key OS files

  • At the user level you can backup or restore using the built-in backup utility

  • Click the Start button and select All Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Backup

  • It uses a wizard to help you select files for backup







Scheduling tasks

Scheduling Tasks

  • Windows can automatically perform maintenance programs such as Error-checking or Disk Cleanup on a regular basis for you

  • Click the Start button and select All Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Scheduled Tasks

  • Select the program to be schedule, how often to run it, and then specify when it is to run

Task scheduler

Task Scheduler

Task scheduler1

Task Scheduler

Task scheduler2

Task Scheduler



  • Disk Nomenclature

  • Drive Properties

  • Formatting

  • Diskcopy

  • Defrag

  • Scandisk

  • Disk Cleanup

  • Backup

  • Scheduling Tasks

Operating systems i

Homework Assignment

  • Reading

    • Windows XP Textbook – pp 137-149

    • CLI Textbook - pp. 34-39, pp114-116

  • Lab Exercise 9: Perform Routine Disk Management

  • Due Date: A Week from Next Tuesday

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