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1. What Is Engineering?. Objectives. Define engineering . Identify and describe the types of knowledge used by engineers. List the roles that make an engineering team. List several engineering disciplines. Summarize the historical developments in engineering. Engineering Defined.

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1

What Is Engineering?


Objectives
Objectives

  • Define engineering.

  • Identify and describe the types of knowledge used by engineers.

  • List the roles that make an engineering team.

  • List several engineering disciplines.

  • Summarize the historical developments in engineering.


Engineering defined
Engineering Defined

  • Uses math, science, and technology

  • Creates products and systems

  • Improves world


What are engineers
What Are Engineers?

  • Highly trained professionals

  • Use math and science knowledge and skills

  • Use materials and natural forces

  • Solve problems


Problem solving
Problem Solving

  • Engineers use engineering design process

  • Take into account design parameters

    • Specifications

    • Constraints

  • Balance for optimization

  • Make trade-offs


Types of knowledge
Types of Knowledge

  • Mathematical knowledge

  • Scientific knowledge

  • Technical knowledge

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Mathematical knowledge
Mathematical Knowledge

  • Analysis of data (graphs, charts, data tables)

  • Algebra (relationships between variables)

  • Calculus (rate of change, forces acting on object)

  • Statistics (failure analyses, reliability, justification of design decisions)


Scientific knowledge
Scientific Knowledge

  • Statics, force, load, and tension

  • Ohm’s law, atomic structure, and circuit theory

  • Thermodynamics

  • Kinematics

  • Fluid mechanics

  • Boolean logic


Technical knowledge
Technical Knowledge

  • Use of design tools, such as computer-aided design software and drawing tools

  • Use of mechanical tools, such as gauges and meters

  • Use of communication tools, such as e-mail and document preparation and presentation software


Types of skills and traits
Types of Skills and Traits

  • Interest in solving problems

  • Detail oriented

  • Analytic ability

  • Creativity

  • Drawing and design skills

  • Interpersonal and communication skills

  • Time and project management skills


Role of engineers
Role of Engineers

  • Design

  • Production

  • Material use

  • Coordination and management of project

  • Analysis

  • Project leading

  • Decision making


Engineering teams
Engineering Teams

  • Often include engineering technicians

    • Generally use more technology than engineers

    • Often use less scientific and math knowledge than engineers

  • Often include tradespeople

    • Follow plans of engineers or technicians

    • Have specific technical knowledge and skills


Engineering disciplines

Chemical engineering

Environmental engineering

Nuclear engineering

Petroleum and mining engineering

Engineering Disciplines

  • Materials engineering

  • Electrical engineering

  • Civil engineering

  • Mechanical engineering

  • Bioengineering

  • Computer engineering

  • Aerospace engineering

  • Manufacturing engineering


Materials engineering
Materials Engineering

  • Focuses on nature of materials

    • Design and test new materials

    • Find new ways to use existing materials

  • Requires understanding of material properties

    • Atomic structure

    • Strength

    • Stress

    • Strain

    • Elasticity


Electrical engineering
Electrical Engineering

  • Focuses on design and development of electrical and electronic systems and products

  • Sometimes employed in other industries

  • Requires application of electrical principles

    • Nature of electricity

    • Voltage, current, and resistance

    • Circuit design

    • Electrical measurement


Civil engineering
Civil Engineering

  • Focuses on structures and natural resources

  • Considered to be oldest engineering field

  • Subfields include structural engineering

  • Requires use of construction concepts

    • Statics

    • Mechanics

    • Surveying and mapping

    • Use of different construction materials


Mechanical engineering
Mechanical Engineering

  • Focuses on design, building, and maintenance of mechanical, thermal, and fluid systems

  • Requires use of energy concepts

    • Mechanics

    • Pneumatics

    • Hydraulics

    • Power transmission

    • Gear ratios

    • Efficiency


Bioengineering
Bioengineering

  • Focuses on problems relating to biology

  • Includes biomedical engineering

    • Focus on humans

    • Design of medical devices and diagnostic tools

  • Includes agricultural engineering

    • Focus on plants and animals

    • Design of machines and processes for farming


Computer engineering
Computer Engineering

  • Focuses on design, development, and testing of computer systems

    • Computer hardware and peripherals

    • Computer software

    • Computer network devices

  • Requires understanding of computer concepts

    • Computer logic

    • Computer architecture

    • Human-computer interaction


Aerospace engineering
Aerospace Engineering

  • Designs, builds, analyzes, and troubleshoots aircraft, spacecraft, and space planes

  • Includes aeronautics and astronautics

  • Uses transportation concepts

    • Fluid dynamics

    • Aerodynamics

    • Principles of flight

    • Aircraft and spacecraft design


Manufacturing engineering
Manufacturing Engineering

  • Focuses on design and coordination of production of products

  • Organizes material handling processes

  • Supervises quality control

  • Requires understanding of manufacturing

    • Material processes

    • Plant and process layout

    • Principles of quality control

    • Material handling techniques


Chemical engineering
Chemical Engineering

  • Concerned with production of chemicals

  • Employed in many industries

  • Designs production techniques and facilities

  • Improves safety of manufacturing facilities

  • Solves many problems

    • Chemical problems

    • Material problems

    • Large-scale production problems


Environmental engineering

Going Green

Environmental Engineering

  • Designs environmentally friendly products

  • Works to improve air and soil quality

  • Works to enhance human health

  • Tries to find new ways to reduce pollution

  • Works to protect environment and make it safer

  • Employed in many areas


Other engineering disciplines
Other Engineering Disciplines

  • Nuclear engineering – designs ways to safely use nuclear materials

  • Petroleum and mining engineering – finds new ways to extract raw materials from earth


History of engineering
History of Engineering

  • Humans have been involved with engineering for thousands of years

  • As a defined profession, only several hundred years old

  • Each field of engineering has its own history


Engineering through history
Engineering through History

Goodheart-Willcox Publisher


Early civilizations
Early Civilizations

  • Development of engineering follows human and societal needs

  • Use of trial-and-error method rather than use of mathematics and science as foundation


Early civilizations1
Early Civilizations

  • Temples and pyramids

  • Irrigation systems, dams, and aqueducts

  • Metal tools and weapons

  • Systems of roadways

  • Waterwheels

  • Vehicles


Industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution

  • Formalization of many forms of engineering

  • Watt’s improvements to steam engine

  • Discovery of magnetic induction

  • First battery

  • Incandescent lightbulb

  • Electric induction motor

  • Discovery of 70 chemical elements

  • Cotton gin, reaper, and steel plow


Twentieth century advances
Twentieth Century Advances

  • New heights for buildings and structures

  • Production facilities developed

  • Development of radio, TV, computer, electronics, and satellites

  • New fields of computer engineering, software engineering, electronic engineering, and aerospace engineering

  • Advances in medicine and medical imaging


Engineering in the twenty first century
Engineering in the Twenty-First Century

  • More powerful, faster, and more capable computers

  • Vehicles that will make space travel more feasible and economical

  • More efficient machines

  • Nanotechnology


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