Running Record. Running are a method of recording a student’s reading behavior. Running Records provide teachers with information that can be analyzed to determine the strengths and needs of an individual student.
Running are a method of recording a student’s reading behavior. Running Records provide teachers with information that can be analyzed to determine the strengths and needs of an individual student.
Since a prepared script is unnecessary, Running Records can be taken at any time on any reading material.
Running Records are a way of observing and recording reading behaviors. Teachers can use information form Running Records to:
Independent – 95 – 100% accuracy
(Reading to Self)
Instructional – 90 - 94% accuracy
(Reading for instruction)
Hard/Frustration – Below 90% accuracy
The boy ran home.
Accurate Reading: The boy ran home.
Substitution: The boy went home
Omission: The boy ran.
Insertion: The little boy ran home.
Repeat: The boy ran home. The boy ran home. The boy The boy ran home.
Told: make with a T
Appeals: make with an A
Error Rate: Divide the number of running record words by the number of errors. RW/E = 100/10 to calculate error rate. The ratio would be 1:10 or one error for every ten words the student read.
Accuracy Rate: Use the error ration of 1:10 and the conversion table to find the accuracy rate of 90% or subtract errors from the running record words to find the number of correctly read words. Then divide the running record words into the correct read words. 100 – 10 = 90 90/100 = 90%
Self-Correction Rate: Add the number of errors and the number of self-corrections. Then divide by the number of self-corrections. E+SC/SC = 10 + 5/5 The ration would be 1:3 or one self correction for each three errors the student made.
Young children need to have certain basic concepts/abilities in order to learn to read:
Concept that print carries the message
Ability to attend visually to the print and the distinctive features of printed text
Basic concepts about the conventions of the English language.
In order to read, the reader used information in the printed text to help determine the author’s intended message. It is understood that reading is an interactive process in which the reader also comprehends the text. Marie Clay developed Running Record to record the reader’s behavior and analyze the substitutions and self-corrections made while reading. Meaning, Structure, and Visual (M S V) cues are the basis for this important analysis. Cues are defined as sources of information in the text When analyzing errors and self-corrections, take into account the text up to and including the error.
Sound and Symbols
Children need to learn to:
SEARCH the text and pictures for clues to meaning and to PREDICT what the text is about.
SELF MONITOR to make sure what is being read makes sense, and SELF CORRECT if meaning is lost.
CROSS CHECK that what is read matches exactly what is on the page.
CONFIRM that everything is coming together in a meaningful way
The teacher examines the running record for evidence of what the child did at the point of difficulty.
Strategies are cognitive actions initiated by the reader to construct meaning from the text. We cannot observe strategies, but we can collect evidence of reading behavior that indicates a child is engaging in mental problem- solving. We know that effective readers:
To examine strategies use, the teacher can analyze running records and look closely at cues that were used or ignored by the reader. The teacher must determine if the child employed a strategy to help her actively make predictions and confirm or reject the predictions based on other information.
Clay, M.M. (1993). An Observation Survey. Portsmouth, NH: Heineman
Clay, M.M. (2000) Running Records for Classroom Teachers. Portsmouth, NH: Heineman