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Somatic and Special Senses. Chapter 10. Introduction. Sensory Receptors - detect environmental changes and trigger nerve impulses that travel on sensory pathways into the CNS for processing and interpretation. http://michaeldmann.net/pix_4b/gust_receptors.gif.

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Introduction
Introduction

  • Sensory Receptors- detect environmental changes and trigger nerve impulses that travel on sensory pathways into the CNS for processing and interpretation

http://michaeldmann.net/pix_4b/gust_receptors.gif


2 large types of sensory receptors
2 large types of sensory receptors

  • 1. Somatic senses: touch, pressure, temperature, and pain

  • 2. Special senses: smell, taste, hearing, equilibrium, and vision

http://www.medicalook.com/systems_images/Somatic_senses.gif


Receptors and sensations
Receptors and Sensations

  • Receptors are distinct to a type of environmental change

  • This selective response distinguishes the senses

  • 5 kinds


1 chemoreceptors
1. Chemoreceptors

  • Stimulated by changes in the chemical concentration of substances


2 pain receptors
2. Pain Receptors

  • Stimulated by tissue damage

https://courses.cit.cornell.edu/psych396/student2006/the_biology_of_pain/receptor2.jpg


3 thermoreceptors
3. Thermoreceptors

  • Stimulated by changes in temperature

http://resource.rockyview.ab.ca/t4t/bio30/images/m1/b30_m1_022_l.jpg


4 mechanoreceptors
4. Mechanoreceptors

  • Stimulated by changes in pressure or movement

http://bdml.stanford.edu/twiki/pub/Haptics/ProjectOverview/mechanoreceptors.jpg


5 photoreceptors
5. Photoreceptors

  • Stimulated by light energy

http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_02/d_02_m/d_02_m_vis/d_02_m_vis_1a.jpg


Sensation
Sensation

  • Sensation-a feeling that occurs when the brain interprets sensory impulses

  • Impulse is read depending on what area of the brain receives it

  • One area may be sound and one area may be touch



Projection
Projection

  • Projection-process where the cerebral cortex causes a feeling to stem from a source

  • It allows a person to pinpoint the region of stimulation (eyes & ears)


Sensory adaptation
Sensory Adaptation

  • Sensory adaptation-sensory receptors stop sending signals when they are repeatedly stimulated

  • Can only be triggered if stimulus strength changes again

  • Think smell (phasic)


http://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpghttp://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpg


Somatic senses
Somatic Senseshttp://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpg

  • 1. Sensory Nerve Fibers

    • Common in epithelial tissues

    • Are associated with touch and pressure

http://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/anatomy/sensory%20organs.jpg


  • 2. Meissner’s Corpuscleshttp://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpg

    • Small masses of connective tissue

    • Located in hairless portions of the skin (lips, fingertips, palms, soles, nipples, external genitalia)

    • Interpret light touch

http://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/anatomy/sensory%20organs.jpg


  • 3. Parcinian Corpuslces http://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpg

    • Large structures of connective tissue

    • Located in deep tissue layers like ligaments and tendons

    • Respond to heavy pressure


Temperature senses
Temperature Senseshttp://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpg

  • 1. Warm Receptors - nerve endings that respond to warmer temperatures (sensitive above 77°, unresponsive above 113°F)

  • 2. Cold Receptors - nerve endings that respond to colder temperatures (sensitive between 50°F and 68°F)


http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514259882/html/graphic22.pnghttp://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpg


Sense of pain
Sense of Painhttp://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpg

  • These protect the body because tissue damage stimulates them

  • Usually unpleasant and signals the person to remove the stimulation

  • Pain is persistent and doesn’t go away

  • Four types


1 visceral pain
1. Visceral Painhttp://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpg

  • Occurs in visceral tissues such as heart, lungs, intestine

http://wehelpwhathurts.homestead.com/visceral-somatic_referral_patterns_resize_smaller.jpg


2 referred pain
2. Referred Painhttp://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpg

  • Feels as though it is coming from a different part (heart pain may be felt as pain in arm or shoulder)

  • Caused from Nerves passing through the same area

http://www.merckmanuals.com/media/home/figures/NEU_referred_pain.gif


3 acute pain
3. Acute Painhttp://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpg

  • Originates from skin, usually stops when stimulus stops (needle prick)

https://courses.cit.cornell.edu/psych396/student2006/the_biology_of_pain/receptor2.jpg


4 chronic pain
4. Chronic Painhttp://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpg

  • Dull aching sensations

http://criticalscience.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/pain-map_alphachimp_com.jpg


Regulation of pain
Regulation of painhttp://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpg

  • Pain is interpreted by the Cerebral Cortex in the brain.

  • Three types of neuropeptides that inhibit pain: serotonin, enkephalins, endorphins.

  • Natural brain chemicals can be mimicked by drugs such as morphine.


Morphine
Morphinehttp://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpg

http://recoverylife.com/resources/gallery_photo/morphine60.jpg


Special senses
Special Senseshttp://www.cyndan.com.au/Portals/0/Media/F/Farm%20Mate%20cow.jpg

  • Smell: olfactory organs

  • Taste: taste buds

  • Hearing equilibrium: Ears

  • Sight: Eyes


http://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/anatomy/poster_special_senses_small.jpghttp://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/anatomy/poster_special_senses_small.jpg


Sense of smell
Sense of Smellhttp://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/anatomy/poster_special_senses_small.jpg

  • The sense of smell is associated with complex sensory structures in the upper region of the nasal cavity

http://www.umm.edu/graphics/images/en/8689.jpg


Olfactory receptors
Olfactory Receptorshttp://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/anatomy/poster_special_senses_small.jpg

  • Chemoreceptors that are stimulated by chemicals that are dissolved in liquid

  • Aid in food selection because smell and taste are closely related

http://www.yalescientific.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/fulllengths-olfaction-2.jpg


Olfactory organs
Olfactory Organshttp://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/anatomy/poster_special_senses_small.jpg

  • Contain the olfactory receptors which are masses that cover the upper parts of the nasal cavity

http://www.medicalook.com/systems_images/Olfactory_sense.gif


Olfactory receptor cells
Olfactory Receptor Cellshttp://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/anatomy/poster_special_senses_small.jpg

  • Bipolar neurons surrounded by epithelial cells

  • Covered in cilia which have receptor proteins that the odor chemicals bind to

http://openwetware.org/images/b/ba/Olfactory_System_2.jpg


Olfactory bulbs
Olfactory Bulbshttp://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/anatomy/poster_special_senses_small.jpg

  • Receive the nerve impulses from the receptor cells (located in the brain)

http://lynlaukimdak.wikispaces.com/file/view/42.jpg/219698964/42.jpg


Olfactory tracts
Olfactory Tractshttp://www.exploringnature.org/graphics/anatomy/poster_special_senses_small.jpg

  • Located inside the olfactory bulbs and interpret the nerve impulses

Smell Video

http://www.medicalook.com/systems_images/Olfactory_sense.gif


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