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Selection of Rankine Cycles for Various Resources PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Selection of Rankine Cycles for Various Resources. P M V Subbarao Professor Mechanical Engineering Department. Match the Cycle and Resource …. Improved thermal efficiency, feeding the turbine with ~340 °C (15 MPa) steam instead of ~285 °C   (7MPa) . Thermohydraulic considerations.

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Selection of Rankine Cycles for Various Resources

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Selection of rankine cycles for various resources l.jpg

Selection of Rankine Cycles for Various Resources

P M V Subbarao

Professor

Mechanical Engineering Department

Match the Cycle and Resource …


Slide2 l.jpg

Improved thermal efficiency, feeding the turbine with ~340 °C (15 MPa) steam instead of ~285 °C   (7MPa)


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Thermohydraulic considerations

  • A thermal design criterion for a PWR reactor core is the limit of the fuel temperature (melting point of UO2 about 2800 °C), being the design temperatures 2000 °C at rated power and 2350 °C at a maximum linear fuel rating of 54 kW/m.

  • According to this criterion, recent PWR cores have an average linear fuel rating of 17.9 kW/m and maximum linear fuel rating of 44 kW/m. For a BWR, the maximum allowable temperature at the center of a fuel rod is 2500 °C in an emergency and 1850 °C during normal operation .


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Thermohydraulic considerations

  • Following this criterion, a HP-BWR with a thermal power of ~2700 MW, and an electrical power output of ~1000 MW, may have a core with an average linear fuel rating of 13.6 kW/m and a maximum linear fuel rating of 44 kW/m.

  • Without any fuel modifications, the temperature at the center of a fuel rod during normal operation is slightly higher and has been estimated to be 1885 °C.

  • The maximum temperature of the Zircaloy-2 fuel cladding is around 491 °C, which is lower than the allowed maximum temperature of 550 °C.


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Hardware Modifications for Creation of Better Cycle Conditions

Fossil Fuel Based Systems


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Role of SG in Rankine Cycle

Using Natural resources of energy.


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Hot Flue

Gas

Thermal Structure

SH

Steam

Rise in Enthalpy of

Steam

Convection HT

Drop in Enthalpy

of Flue Gas

Convection &

Radiation HT

Mechanism of Heat Transfer

Thermal Structure

Sink /Demand

Source/Supply

Phenomenological Model


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Gas to Liquid Heat Exchange

Liquid Heating


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Thot gas,in

Thot gas,out

Tcold steam,out

Tcold steam,in

Mechanism of Heat Transfer :Generalized Newton’s Law of Cooling

  • Rate of heat transfer from hot gas to cold steam is proportional to:

  • Surface area of heat transfer

  • Mean Temperature difference between Hot Gas and Cold Steam.


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Thot gas,in

Thot gas,out

Tcold steam,out

Tcold steam,in

Thot gas,in

Thot gas,out

Tcold steam,out

Tcold steam,in


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Log Mean Temperature Difference

  • Rate of Heat Transfer

  • U Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, kW/m2.K


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Impact cycle on Construction of Steam Generator


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Steam Generator : Water Wall Furnace


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