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HAZMAT UAS. Anayzing Hazardous Material Spills and Asymmetric Threats Using a Small Rotary-Wing Unmanned Aerial System. Hazmat Heli Demo Pictures. HAZMAT UAS Scenarios. Explosion Urban environment, casualties, line of sight obscuration, radiation Search and Rescue

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

HAZMAT UAS

Anayzing Hazardous Material Spills and

Asymmetric Threats Using a

Small Rotary-Wing Unmanned Aerial System

hazmat uas scenarios
HAZMAT UAS Scenarios
  • Explosion
    • Urban environment, casualties, line of sight obscuration, radiation
  • Search and Rescue
    • Person missing in area with limited tree cover
  • HAZMAT Release
    • Tanker truck/train incident, find and read hazmat sign
  • Water Rescue
    • Tour boat incident, locate personnel
  • Large Fire
    • Provide imagery of area to aid commander
  • Chemical/Biological Release
    • Intentional release of toxic agents, confirm location and distribution
slide4

Measures of Performance

  • Time from arrival on site to launch
  • Time from launch to arrival on-scene
  • Total time on-scene
  • Total flight time
  • Real-time imagery (video, HD, frame rate)
  • Quality of imagery (NIIRS, PSF)
  • Ability to provide both EO and IR imagery (NIIRS)
  • Ability to carry additional sensors
  • (rad/bio/chem/acoustic)
measures of effectiveness
Measures of Effectiveness
  • Quality of information allows scene commander to make decisions:
    • NIIRS rating of imagery (measure PSF under flight conditions)
    • Time taken to produce results
    • Ability for persistent surveillance
  • Time to detect/classify/localize person in SAR scenario
  • Ability to carry a dosimeter and effectively map a radiation field
  • Time to find and effectively read HAZMAT signs on vehicles
  • Ability to map affected areas:
    • Accuracy of map
    • Time to produce map
  • IR imagery for mapping fires and SAR
  • Determine presence of chem/bio materials
  • Payload capability
uas avenues of study
UAS Avenues of Study
  • CONOPS
  • Human Factors
  • Payloads
  • Latency
  • Cost
  • Platforms

$ M

$100s k

$25 k

$60 k

$ 100

slide7

High Resolution

Low Resolution

CONOPS

slide10

150m

100m

Video vs Digital

slide11

Resolution Elements

Modulation Transfer

Function

  • Point Spread Func.
  • Rayleigh limit
  • Pixels/TTP element
  • Required resolution

Detect

4 pixels

Identification

50 pixels

17% Contrast

9% Contrast

slide12

Camera Characteristics

  • Modulation Transfer Function (MTF):
  • ~MTF30 = 0.43
  • Field of View ~47 degrees
  • 4280x2848 total pixels
  • JPEG format
  • This gives ~900 pixels on a face
  • target at 300m slant range
  • Contrast depends on background,
  • temperature etc.
image processing techniques
Image Processing Techniques
  • Automatic target detection, tracking, classification and identification
  • Richardson-Lucy de-convolution
  • Super resolution
  • Image mosaicing
  • Stabilization
  • Change detection
  • Geo-location
  • 3D Visualization
slide16

Video and

Digital Imaging

slide17

Image Resolution Studies

Image of Dangerous Goods Sign

at 40 metres

slide18

Super Resolution, Mosaicing

Real-time video

mosaicing

Super resolution

algorithms

slide20

Video and Digital

Imagery

Slant Range

300m

video stabilization
Video Stabilization
  • Real time video stabilization
mosaic
Mosaic
  • Real time video
  • Geo referenced
slant range effects on identification
Slant Range Effects on Identification

20 m

30 m

40 m

10 m

70 m

50 m

60 m

slide24

Image Performance Limits for a Small UAS

70 m

Lucky Image

Original

60 m

slide25

Future Performance

HAZMAT UAS

  • Target identification criteria
  • met at 300m slant range
  • Sufficient resolution for
  • HNeT automatic facial
  • recognition

Typical images

At 300m

Video

slide28

HAZMAT Test Area

SAR Area

Chem/Bio Release

UAS Base Test Area

Test Targets

Explosion

100 metres

Hazmat Accident

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