HAZMAT UAS
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HAZMAT UAS. Anayzing Hazardous Material Spills and Asymmetric Threats Using a Small Rotary-Wing Unmanned Aerial System. Hazmat Heli Demo Pictures. HAZMAT UAS Scenarios. Explosion Urban environment, casualties, line of sight obscuration, radiation Search and Rescue

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HAZMAT UAS

Anayzing Hazardous Material Spills and

Asymmetric Threats Using a

Small Rotary-Wing Unmanned Aerial System


Hazmat HeliDemo Pictures


HAZMAT UAS Scenarios

  • Explosion

    • Urban environment, casualties, line of sight obscuration, radiation

  • Search and Rescue

    • Person missing in area with limited tree cover

  • HAZMAT Release

    • Tanker truck/train incident, find and read hazmat sign

  • Water Rescue

    • Tour boat incident, locate personnel

  • Large Fire

    • Provide imagery of area to aid commander

  • Chemical/Biological Release

    • Intentional release of toxic agents, confirm location and distribution


Measures of Performance

  • Time from arrival on site to launch

  • Time from launch to arrival on-scene

  • Total time on-scene

  • Total flight time

  • Real-time imagery (video, HD, frame rate)

  • Quality of imagery (NIIRS, PSF)

  • Ability to provide both EO and IR imagery (NIIRS)

  • Ability to carry additional sensors

  • (rad/bio/chem/acoustic)


Measures of Effectiveness

  • Quality of information allows scene commander to make decisions:

    • NIIRS rating of imagery (measure PSF under flight conditions)

    • Time taken to produce results

    • Ability for persistent surveillance

  • Time to detect/classify/localize person in SAR scenario

  • Ability to carry a dosimeter and effectively map a radiation field

  • Time to find and effectively read HAZMAT signs on vehicles

  • Ability to map affected areas:

    • Accuracy of map

    • Time to produce map

  • IR imagery for mapping fires and SAR

  • Determine presence of chem/bio materials

  • Payload capability


UAS Avenues of Study

  • CONOPS

  • Human Factors

  • Payloads

  • Latency

  • Cost

  • Platforms

$ M

$100s k

$25 k

$60 k

$ 100


High Resolution

Low Resolution

CONOPS


Information Management


Sensor Comparison


150m

100m

Video vs Digital


Resolution Elements

Modulation Transfer

Function

  • Point Spread Func.

  • Rayleigh limit

  • Pixels/TTP element

  • Required resolution

Detect

4 pixels

Identification

50 pixels

17% Contrast

9% Contrast


Camera Characteristics

  • Modulation Transfer Function (MTF):

  • ~MTF30 = 0.43

  • Field of View ~47 degrees

  • 4280x2848 total pixels

  • JPEG format

  • This gives ~900 pixels on a face

  • target at 300m slant range

  • Contrast depends on background,

  • temperature etc.


High Resolution Digital Imaging


1-cm wide strips

At 50 m


Image Processing Techniques

  • Automatic target detection, tracking, classification and identification

  • Richardson-Lucy de-convolution

  • Super resolution

  • Image mosaicing

  • Stabilization

  • Change detection

  • Geo-location

  • 3D Visualization


Video and

Digital Imaging


Image Resolution Studies

Image of Dangerous Goods Sign

at 40 metres


Super Resolution, Mosaicing

Real-time video

mosaicing

Super resolution

algorithms


High Resolution Mosaic


Video and Digital

Imagery

Slant Range

300m


Video Stabilization

  • Real time video stabilization


Mosaic

  • Real time video

  • Geo referenced


Slant Range Effects on Identification

20 m

30 m

40 m

10 m

70 m

50 m

60 m


Image Performance Limits for a Small UAS

70 m

Lucky Image

Original

60 m


Future Performance

HAZMAT UAS

  • Target identification criteria

  • met at 300m slant range

  • Sufficient resolution for

  • HNeT automatic facial

  • recognition

Typical images

At 300m

Video


Image Resolution Measurements


Typical Imagery


HAZMAT Test Area

SAR Area

Chem/Bio Release

UAS Base Test Area

Test Targets

Explosion

100 metres

Hazmat Accident


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