Netbios wins ipv6
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NetBios WINS Ipv6. MIS 4700 Dr. Garrett. History Of NetBIOS. Developed by Sytek in 1983 Adopted by IMB and Microsoft Small peer-to-peer networks Protocol and Application Programming Interface (API) NetBEUI and NetBT. What is NetBIOS (And Why Do I Care)?.

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NetBios WINS Ipv6

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Netbios wins ipv6

NetBiosWINSIpv6

MIS 4700

Dr. Garrett


History of netbios

History Of NetBIOS

  • Developed by Sytek in 1983

  • Adopted by IMB and Microsoft

  • Small peer-to-peer networks

  • Protocol and Application Programming Interface (API)

  • NetBEUI and NetBT

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


What is netbios and why do i care

What is NetBIOS (And Why Do I Care)?

  • Maintains a list of unique names assigned to network resources

  • Named resources include

    • Files

    • Services

    • Users

    • Computers

    • Workgroups and domains

  • Names not addresses

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


How windows 2000 xp and windows server 2003 work with netbios

How Windows 2000/ XP, And Windows Server 2003 Work With NetBIOS

  • Windows 2000 and later use DNS as the preferred method of resolving names

  • Enable NetBIOS name resolution for older versions of Windows

  • WINS server

  • NetBIOS over TCP/IP

  • Windows Server 2003 DNS services are compatible with WINS

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Netbios and tcp ip

NetBIOS and TCP/IP

  • Using DNS only

  • Using NBF only

  • Combining TCP/IP and NetBIOS

    • NetBT and NBF enabled by default on Windows 2000 and Windows XP

  • WINS integrated with DNS

  • LMHOSTS

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Netbios and tcp ip cont

NetBIOS and TCP/IP (cont.)

  • NetBIOS emulator

  • CIFS

  • SMB

  • Dynamic link library

  • Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Netbios and tcp ip cont1

NetBIOS and TCP/IP (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


How does netbios work

How Does NetBIOS Work?

  • NetBIOS takes advantage of

    • Simple naming

    • Address handling

    • Message format conventions

  • NetBIOS supports

    • Connectionless datagrams

    • Connection-oriented session frames

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


How does netbios work cont

How Does NetBIOS Work? (cont.)

  • NetBIOS traffic

    • Datagrams

      • Connectionless “announcement” type traffic

      • Request and Response

    • Session frames

      • Connection-oriented

      • Interaction with a process running on another host

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


How does netbios work cont1

How Does NetBIOS Work? (cont.)

  • Registering and Challenging NetBIOS Names

    • Name Registration Request packet

    • Negative Name Registration Reply

  • NetBIOS name resolution

    • Three categories

      • Look up list of names on local host

      • Broadcast queries on the local subnet

      • Direct queries to name servers

  • Other NetBIOS services

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


How does netbios work cont2

How Does NetBIOS Work? (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Netbios names

NetBIOS Names

  • NetBIOS names are base on

    • Username during logon

    • Information configured for the specific computer

  • Structure of NetBIOS names

    • Two general types

      • Unique names

      • Group names

    • 16 characters long

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Netbios names cont

NetBIOS Names (cont.)

  • NetBIOS name types and suffixes

    • NetBIOS names end with a one-character (2-byte) suffix

      • Service or function called by that name

      • Range from 00 to FF

  • NetBIOS scope identifier

    • Back door to add further differentiation to resource names

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Netbios name registration and resolution

NetBIOS Name Registration And Resolution

  • NetBIOS names are registered and resolved using a variety of methods

    • Node type

    • NetBIOS name cache and the LMHOSTS file

    • WINS servers configured as NetBIOS Name Servers

    • DNS and the HOSTS file

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Name resolution regimes by node type

Name Resolution Regimes by Node Type

  • B-Node (Broadcast Node)

    • b-node registers and resolves names by using only broadcasts

  • P-Node (Peer Node)

    • p-node attempts to register and resolve names using the local WINS server

  • M-Node (Mixed Node)

    • The m-node is a mixture of the first two node types

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Name resolution regimes by node type cont

Name Resolution Regimes by Node Type (cont.)

  • H-Node (Hybrid Node)

    • h-node is a hybrid that uses the p-node method first and the b-node type second

  • Enhanced B-Node

    • First uses the NetBIOS name cache, then the LMHOSTS file, then tries normal b-node

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Netbios name cache and lmhosts file

NetBIOS Name Cache and LMHOSTS File

  • NetBIOS name cache

    • Temporary file

    • Resides in memory

    • NetBIOS name to IP addresses

  • LMHOSTS file

    • Plain text file

    • Lists NetBIOS name to IP addresses

    • Edit with plain text editor

    • <windows root>\system32\drivers\etc

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Wins name registration and resolution

WINS Name Registration And Resolution

  • WINS servers are

    • NetBIOS name servers

    • Dynamic database of NetBIOS names and IP addresses

  • Send unicasts

  • Windows 2000 and Windows XP utilize up to 11 secondary WINS servers

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Wins name registration and resolution cont

WINS Name Registration And Resolution (cont.)

  • Wait Acknowledgement (WACK)

  • Negative Name Registration Reply packet

  • Name Conflict Demand packet

  • Name Release Demand packet

  • Special name registration regime

    • Burst mode

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Dns and hosts file

DNS And HOSTS File

  • DNS is the preferred method of name resolution for Windows 2000 and Windows XP

  • Some applications or clients attempt to resolve names with the HOSTS file

  • HOSTS file lists IP name and IP address pairs

  • UNIX and Linux name resolution order

    • Local host

    • HOSTS file

    • DNS

    • NetBIOS

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Netbios over tcp ip

NetBIOS Over TCP/IP

  • NetBIOS had to accommodate TCP/IP’s conventions

  • NetBIOS scope identifier was added

  • Had to create a set of steps to make NetBIOS names and commands transportable—and translatable—over a TCP/IP connection

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Netbios over tcp ip cont

NetBIOS Over TCP/IP (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Netbios and dns name resolution

NetBIOS And DNS Name Resolution

  • Creating a usable host name from a NetBIOS name

    • DNS name must be printable

    • Encode NetBIOS names in 32-character ASCII string composed of capital letters “A” through “P”

  • Converting an encoded NetBIOS name to a Fully Qualified Domain Name

    • Domain portion of the name had to be added

    • NetBIOS scope identifier

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Netbios and dns name resolution cont

NetBIOS And DNS Name Resolution (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Netbios and dns name resolution cont1

NetBIOS And DNS Name Resolution (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Wins servers

WINS Servers

  • How WINS works

    • Registers NetBIOS names and IP addresses

    • Can be configured to return the IP address associated with a resource name

    • TTL and version number

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Different wins configurations

Different WINS Configurations

  • Three different WINS topologies

    • Single WINS server

    • WINS server with WINS proxy

    • WINS sever with WINS proxy and replicated WINS services

  • WINS server

    • Check server statistics

    • Check the database and version numbers for consistency

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Different wins configurations cont

Different WINS Configurations (cont.)

  • WINS server (cont.)

    • Mark records for eventual deletion (called “tombstoning” the records)

    • Remove old records (scavenge the database)

    • Search for active registrants

    • Back up and restore the database

    • Create or delete static records

    • Delete dynamic records

    • Export the database as a .csv text file

    • Set replication parameters

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Different wins configurations cont1

Different WINS Configurations (cont.)

  • WINS proxy

    • WINS client attempts to resolve any b-node Name Query broadcasts it hears on its own network segment by querying the WINS server(s) configured for it

    • WINS proxy can resolve the name using WINS, or its own local NetBIOS name cache

    • WINS proxy will not attempt to register names

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Different wins configurations cont2

Different WINS Configurations (cont.)

  • WINS replication

    • Multiple subnets benefit from multiple WINS servers

    • Push/pull replication

    • RR version number incrimination

    • Highest number wins

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Integrating wins and dns

Integrating WINS And DNS

  • Resolve NetBIOS names in the primary or zone root domain

  • MS DNS cannot resolve NetBIOS names that are not direct children of the zone root or primary DNS domain

  • Two choices for integrating WINS with MS DNS

    • Each subdomain has its own Start of Authority (SOA) with its own zone root DNS

    • Create a special domain just for NetBIOS clients

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Integrating wins and dns cont

Integrating WINS And DNS (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Integrating wins and dns cont1

Integrating WINS And DNS (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Pointing dns at wins for netbios name resolution

Pointing DNS At WINS For NetBIOS Name Resolution

  • Configure by

    • DSN console

    • Editing the Registry

  • WINS server is entered as an RR in the MS DNS server’s database

  • owner class WINS [LOCAL] [L<value>] [C<value>] <wins_address>

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Reverse dns lookup for netbios names

Reverse DNS Lookup For NetBIOS Names

  • Configure WINS-R for MS DNS servers in the reverse lookup zone root

  • WINS-R information is entered as an RR in the MS DNS server’s database

  • owner class WINS-R [LOCAL] [L<value>] [C<value>] <domain_to_append>

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Windows server 2003 wins improvements

Windows Server 2003 WINS Improvements

  • Two improvements

    • Filtering records

      • Locate records by specific criteria

      • Analyzing very large WINS database records

    • Accepting replication partners

      • Define lists that control the source of incoming name records or accepts only name records from specific replication partners

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Tools for troubleshooting netbios and wins problems

Tools For Troubleshooting NetBIOS And WINS Problems

  • NBTSTAT

  • WINS and DNS Consoles

  • SNMP for WINS

  • Packet Analyzers

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Tools for troubleshooting netbios and wins problems cont

Tools For Troubleshooting NetBIOS And WINS Problems (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Tools for troubleshooting netbios and wins problems cont1

Tools For Troubleshooting NetBIOS And WINS Problems (cont.)

  • Typical errors in NetBIOS and WINS

    • Misconfiguration of end nodes due to user error

    • Incorrect network logon due to user error

    • Wrong node type due to user error or misconfigured DHCP

    • Timeouts set too low to allow for network latency

    • Unwanted traffic due to misconfiguration of end nodes and/or servers, or client/server topology

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Tools for troubleshooting netbios and wins problems cont2

Tools For Troubleshooting NetBIOS And WINS Problems (cont.)

  • Typical errors in NetBIOS and WINS (cont.)

    • Malicious errors (intrusion, node masquerading, forced name releases)

    • Unusual numbers of forced name releases due to incorrect end node shutdown

    • Bogged-down servers due to incorrect configuration or topology

  • Security flaws in NetBIOS

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Netbios wins ipv6

IPv6


Why create a new version of ip

Why Create A New Version Of IP?

  • Lack of universally valid IP addresses

  • Classless Inter-domain Routing

  • Network Address Translation

  • “Private” IP addresses

  • DHCP

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


The ipv6 address space

The IPv6 Address Space

  • Address format and allocations

    • Address format and notations

      • FEDC:BA45:1234:3245:E54E:A101:1234:ABCD

      • 1018:FD0C:0:9:90:900:10BB:A

    • Network and host address

    • Scope identifier

    • Interface identifiers

    • IPv6 addresses that contain IPv4 addresses

    • A proposal for native IPv6 addresses in URLs

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


The ipv6 address space cont

The IPv6 Address Space (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


The ipv6 address space cont1

The IPv6 Address Space (cont.)

  • Address types

    • Special addresses

    • No more broadcasts

    • Multicast addresses

    • Anycast addresses

    • Unicast addresses

    • Aggregatable global unicast addresses

    • Link-local and site-local addresses

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


The ipv6 address space cont2

The IPv6 Address Space (cont.)

  • Address allocations

    • NSAP allocations

      • Point-to-point links

    • Unicast and Anycast allocations

      • Assign address blocks to “exchanges” that make further distributions

    • Multicast allocations

      • OxFF

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Routing considerations

Routing Considerations

  • Neighbor Discovery and Router Advertisements

    • Router Solicitation (RS)

    • Router Advertisement (RA)

    • Neighbor Solicitation (NS)

    • Neighbor Advertisement (NA)

    • Redirect

  • Path MTU discovery and changes in fragmentation

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Ipv6 packet formats

IPv6 Packet Formats

  • Basic IPv6 header format

    • Version Field

    • Class Field

    • Flow Label Field

    • Payload Length Field

    • Next Header Field

    • Hop Limit Field

    • Source IP Address Field

    • Destination IP address Field

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


New and enhanced ipv6 features

New And Enhanced IPv6 Features

  • Autoconfiguration

    • Stateless autoconfiguration

    • Stateful autoconfiguration and DHCPv6

  • Security

    • Terms of encryption

    • Security architecture

      • Access control

      • Connectionless integrity

      • Data origin authentication

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


New and enhanced ipv6 features cont

New And Enhanced IPv6 Features (cont.)

  • Security (cont.)

    • Security architecture (cont.)

      • Protection against replays

      • Confidentiality

      • Limit traffic flow confidentiality

    • IPSec implementation and basic operation

    • Traffic mode and tunneling mode

    • Keys and coordination

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


New and enhanced ipv6 features cont1

New And Enhanced IPv6 Features (cont.)

  • Quality of Service (QoS)

    • Per-hop behaviors (PHBs)

    • Per-domain behaviors (PDBs)

  • Router alerts and hop-by-hop options

    • Jumbograms

  • Mobil users

    • The mobile problem

    • Binding and routing for mobile IPv6

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Coexistence of ipv4 and ipv6

Coexistence Of IPv4 And IPv6

  • Dual stack approach

    • Running two versions of IP

  • Tunneling through the IPv4 cloud

    • Both ends of the tunnel must be dual stack routers

  • IPv6 rate of adoption

    • Big push from

      • Cellular technologies

      • Mobile technologies

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Transitioning to ipv6 the reality

Transitioning To IPv6: The Reality

  • Interoperability

    • Network elements

      • Clients

      • Servers

      • Routers

      • Gateways

      • VoIP networks

      • Network management nodes

      • Transition nodes

      • Firewalls

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Transitioning to ipv6 the reality cont

Transitioning To IPv6: The Reality (cont.)

  • Interoperability (cont.)

    • Software

      • Network management and utilities

      • Network Internet infrastructure applications

      • Network systems applications

      • Network end-user applications

      • Network high-availability software

      • Network security software

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


Transitioning to ipv6 the reality cont1

Transitioning To IPv6: The Reality (cont.)

  • Availability

  • What’s next?

    • Department of Defense (DoD) has committed to deploying IPv6 by 2008

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition


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