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NetBios WINS Ipv6. MIS 4700 Dr. Garrett. History Of NetBIOS. Developed by Sytek in 1983 Adopted by IMB and Microsoft Small peer-to-peer networks Protocol and Application Programming Interface (API) NetBEUI and NetBT. What is NetBIOS (And Why Do I Care)?.

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netbios wins ipv6

NetBiosWINSIpv6

MIS 4700

Dr. Garrett

history of netbios
History Of NetBIOS
  • Developed by Sytek in 1983
  • Adopted by IMB and Microsoft
  • Small peer-to-peer networks
  • Protocol and Application Programming Interface (API)
  • NetBEUI and NetBT

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

what is netbios and why do i care
What is NetBIOS (And Why Do I Care)?
  • Maintains a list of unique names assigned to network resources
  • Named resources include
    • Files
    • Services
    • Users
    • Computers
    • Workgroups and domains
  • Names not addresses

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

how windows 2000 xp and windows server 2003 work with netbios
How Windows 2000/ XP, And Windows Server 2003 Work With NetBIOS
  • Windows 2000 and later use DNS as the preferred method of resolving names
  • Enable NetBIOS name resolution for older versions of Windows
  • WINS server
  • NetBIOS over TCP/IP
  • Windows Server 2003 DNS services are compatible with WINS

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

netbios and tcp ip
NetBIOS and TCP/IP
  • Using DNS only
  • Using NBF only
  • Combining TCP/IP and NetBIOS
    • NetBT and NBF enabled by default on Windows 2000 and Windows XP
  • WINS integrated with DNS
  • LMHOSTS

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

netbios and tcp ip cont
NetBIOS and TCP/IP (cont.)
  • NetBIOS emulator
  • CIFS
  • SMB
  • Dynamic link library
  • Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

netbios and tcp ip cont1
NetBIOS and TCP/IP (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

how does netbios work
How Does NetBIOS Work?
  • NetBIOS takes advantage of
    • Simple naming
    • Address handling
    • Message format conventions
  • NetBIOS supports
    • Connectionless datagrams
    • Connection-oriented session frames

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

how does netbios work cont
How Does NetBIOS Work? (cont.)
  • NetBIOS traffic
    • Datagrams
      • Connectionless “announcement” type traffic
      • Request and Response
    • Session frames
      • Connection-oriented
      • Interaction with a process running on another host

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

how does netbios work cont1
How Does NetBIOS Work? (cont.)
  • Registering and Challenging NetBIOS Names
    • Name Registration Request packet
    • Negative Name Registration Reply
  • NetBIOS name resolution
    • Three categories
      • Look up list of names on local host
      • Broadcast queries on the local subnet
      • Direct queries to name servers
  • Other NetBIOS services

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

how does netbios work cont2
How Does NetBIOS Work? (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

netbios names
NetBIOS Names
  • NetBIOS names are base on
    • Username during logon
    • Information configured for the specific computer
  • Structure of NetBIOS names
    • Two general types
      • Unique names
      • Group names
    • 16 characters long

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

netbios names cont
NetBIOS Names (cont.)
  • NetBIOS name types and suffixes
    • NetBIOS names end with a one-character (2-byte) suffix
      • Service or function called by that name
      • Range from 00 to FF
  • NetBIOS scope identifier
    • Back door to add further differentiation to resource names

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

netbios name registration and resolution
NetBIOS Name Registration And Resolution
  • NetBIOS names are registered and resolved using a variety of methods
    • Node type
    • NetBIOS name cache and the LMHOSTS file
    • WINS servers configured as NetBIOS Name Servers
    • DNS and the HOSTS file

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

name resolution regimes by node type
Name Resolution Regimes by Node Type
  • B-Node (Broadcast Node)
    • b-node registers and resolves names by using only broadcasts
  • P-Node (Peer Node)
    • p-node attempts to register and resolve names using the local WINS server
  • M-Node (Mixed Node)
    • The m-node is a mixture of the first two node types

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

name resolution regimes by node type cont
Name Resolution Regimes by Node Type (cont.)
  • H-Node (Hybrid Node)
    • h-node is a hybrid that uses the p-node method first and the b-node type second
  • Enhanced B-Node
    • First uses the NetBIOS name cache, then the LMHOSTS file, then tries normal b-node

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

netbios name cache and lmhosts file
NetBIOS Name Cache and LMHOSTS File
  • NetBIOS name cache
    • Temporary file
    • Resides in memory
    • NetBIOS name to IP addresses
  • LMHOSTS file
    • Plain text file
    • Lists NetBIOS name to IP addresses
    • Edit with plain text editor
    • <windows root>\system32\drivers\etc

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

wins name registration and resolution
WINS Name Registration And Resolution
  • WINS servers are
    • NetBIOS name servers
    • Dynamic database of NetBIOS names and IP addresses
  • Send unicasts
  • Windows 2000 and Windows XP utilize up to 11 secondary WINS servers

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

wins name registration and resolution cont
WINS Name Registration And Resolution (cont.)
  • Wait Acknowledgement (WACK)
  • Negative Name Registration Reply packet
  • Name Conflict Demand packet
  • Name Release Demand packet
  • Special name registration regime
    • Burst mode

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

dns and hosts file
DNS And HOSTS File
  • DNS is the preferred method of name resolution for Windows 2000 and Windows XP
  • Some applications or clients attempt to resolve names with the HOSTS file
  • HOSTS file lists IP name and IP address pairs
  • UNIX and Linux name resolution order
    • Local host
    • HOSTS file
    • DNS
    • NetBIOS

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

netbios over tcp ip
NetBIOS Over TCP/IP
  • NetBIOS had to accommodate TCP/IP’s conventions
  • NetBIOS scope identifier was added
  • Had to create a set of steps to make NetBIOS names and commands transportable—and translatable—over a TCP/IP connection

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

netbios over tcp ip cont
NetBIOS Over TCP/IP (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

netbios and dns name resolution
NetBIOS And DNS Name Resolution
  • Creating a usable host name from a NetBIOS name
    • DNS name must be printable
    • Encode NetBIOS names in 32-character ASCII string composed of capital letters “A” through “P”
  • Converting an encoded NetBIOS name to a Fully Qualified Domain Name
    • Domain portion of the name had to be added
    • NetBIOS scope identifier

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

netbios and dns name resolution cont
NetBIOS And DNS Name Resolution (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

netbios and dns name resolution cont1
NetBIOS And DNS Name Resolution (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

wins servers
WINS Servers
  • How WINS works
    • Registers NetBIOS names and IP addresses
    • Can be configured to return the IP address associated with a resource name
    • TTL and version number

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

different wins configurations
Different WINS Configurations
  • Three different WINS topologies
    • Single WINS server
    • WINS server with WINS proxy
    • WINS sever with WINS proxy and replicated WINS services
  • WINS server
    • Check server statistics
    • Check the database and version numbers for consistency

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

different wins configurations cont
Different WINS Configurations (cont.)
  • WINS server (cont.)
    • Mark records for eventual deletion (called “tombstoning” the records)
    • Remove old records (scavenge the database)
    • Search for active registrants
    • Back up and restore the database
    • Create or delete static records
    • Delete dynamic records
    • Export the database as a .csv text file
    • Set replication parameters

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

different wins configurations cont1
Different WINS Configurations (cont.)
  • WINS proxy
    • WINS client attempts to resolve any b-node Name Query broadcasts it hears on its own network segment by querying the WINS server(s) configured for it
    • WINS proxy can resolve the name using WINS, or its own local NetBIOS name cache
    • WINS proxy will not attempt to register names

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

different wins configurations cont2
Different WINS Configurations (cont.)
  • WINS replication
    • Multiple subnets benefit from multiple WINS servers
    • Push/pull replication
    • RR version number incrimination
    • Highest number wins

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

integrating wins and dns
Integrating WINS And DNS
  • Resolve NetBIOS names in the primary or zone root domain
  • MS DNS cannot resolve NetBIOS names that are not direct children of the zone root or primary DNS domain
  • Two choices for integrating WINS with MS DNS
    • Each subdomain has its own Start of Authority (SOA) with its own zone root DNS
    • Create a special domain just for NetBIOS clients

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

integrating wins and dns cont
Integrating WINS And DNS (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

integrating wins and dns cont1
Integrating WINS And DNS (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

pointing dns at wins for netbios name resolution
Pointing DNS At WINS For NetBIOS Name Resolution
  • Configure by
    • DSN console
    • Editing the Registry
  • WINS server is entered as an RR in the MS DNS server’s database
  • owner class WINS [LOCAL] [L<value>] [C<value>] <wins_address>

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

reverse dns lookup for netbios names
Reverse DNS Lookup For NetBIOS Names
  • Configure WINS-R for MS DNS servers in the reverse lookup zone root
  • WINS-R information is entered as an RR in the MS DNS server’s database
  • owner class WINS-R [LOCAL] [L<value>] [C<value>] <domain_to_append>

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

windows server 2003 wins improvements
Windows Server 2003 WINS Improvements
  • Two improvements
    • Filtering records
      • Locate records by specific criteria
      • Analyzing very large WINS database records
    • Accepting replication partners
      • Define lists that control the source of incoming name records or accepts only name records from specific replication partners

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

tools for troubleshooting netbios and wins problems
Tools For Troubleshooting NetBIOS And WINS Problems
  • NBTSTAT
  • WINS and DNS Consoles
  • SNMP for WINS
  • Packet Analyzers

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

tools for troubleshooting netbios and wins problems cont1
Tools For Troubleshooting NetBIOS And WINS Problems (cont.)
  • Typical errors in NetBIOS and WINS
    • Misconfiguration of end nodes due to user error
    • Incorrect network logon due to user error
    • Wrong node type due to user error or misconfigured DHCP
    • Timeouts set too low to allow for network latency
    • Unwanted traffic due to misconfiguration of end nodes and/or servers, or client/server topology

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

tools for troubleshooting netbios and wins problems cont2
Tools For Troubleshooting NetBIOS And WINS Problems (cont.)
  • Typical errors in NetBIOS and WINS (cont.)
    • Malicious errors (intrusion, node masquerading, forced name releases)
    • Unusual numbers of forced name releases due to incorrect end node shutdown
    • Bogged-down servers due to incorrect configuration or topology
  • Security flaws in NetBIOS

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

why create a new version of ip
Why Create A New Version Of IP?
  • Lack of universally valid IP addresses
  • Classless Inter-domain Routing
  • Network Address Translation
  • “Private” IP addresses
  • DHCP

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

the ipv6 address space
The IPv6 Address Space
  • Address format and allocations
    • Address format and notations
      • FEDC:BA45:1234:3245:E54E:A101:1234:ABCD
      • 1018:FD0C:0:9:90:900:10BB:A
    • Network and host address
    • Scope identifier
    • Interface identifiers
    • IPv6 addresses that contain IPv4 addresses
    • A proposal for native IPv6 addresses in URLs

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

the ipv6 address space cont
The IPv6 Address Space (cont.)

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

the ipv6 address space cont1
The IPv6 Address Space (cont.)
  • Address types
    • Special addresses
    • No more broadcasts
    • Multicast addresses
    • Anycast addresses
    • Unicast addresses
    • Aggregatable global unicast addresses
    • Link-local and site-local addresses

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

the ipv6 address space cont2
The IPv6 Address Space (cont.)
  • Address allocations
    • NSAP allocations
      • Point-to-point links
    • Unicast and Anycast allocations
      • Assign address blocks to “exchanges” that make further distributions
    • Multicast allocations
      • OxFF

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

routing considerations
Routing Considerations
  • Neighbor Discovery and Router Advertisements
    • Router Solicitation (RS)
    • Router Advertisement (RA)
    • Neighbor Solicitation (NS)
    • Neighbor Advertisement (NA)
    • Redirect
  • Path MTU discovery and changes in fragmentation

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

ipv6 packet formats
IPv6 Packet Formats
  • Basic IPv6 header format
    • Version Field
    • Class Field
    • Flow Label Field
    • Payload Length Field
    • Next Header Field
    • Hop Limit Field
    • Source IP Address Field
    • Destination IP address Field

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

new and enhanced ipv6 features
New And Enhanced IPv6 Features
  • Autoconfiguration
    • Stateless autoconfiguration
    • Stateful autoconfiguration and DHCPv6
  • Security
    • Terms of encryption
    • Security architecture
      • Access control
      • Connectionless integrity
      • Data origin authentication

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

new and enhanced ipv6 features cont
New And Enhanced IPv6 Features (cont.)
  • Security (cont.)
    • Security architecture (cont.)
      • Protection against replays
      • Confidentiality
      • Limit traffic flow confidentiality
    • IPSec implementation and basic operation
    • Traffic mode and tunneling mode
    • Keys and coordination

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

new and enhanced ipv6 features cont1
New And Enhanced IPv6 Features (cont.)
  • Quality of Service (QoS)
    • Per-hop behaviors (PHBs)
    • Per-domain behaviors (PDBs)
  • Router alerts and hop-by-hop options
    • Jumbograms
  • Mobil users
    • The mobile problem
    • Binding and routing for mobile IPv6

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

coexistence of ipv4 and ipv6
Coexistence Of IPv4 And IPv6
  • Dual stack approach
    • Running two versions of IP
  • Tunneling through the IPv4 cloud
    • Both ends of the tunnel must be dual stack routers
  • IPv6 rate of adoption
    • Big push from
      • Cellular technologies
      • Mobile technologies

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

transitioning to ipv6 the reality
Transitioning To IPv6: The Reality
  • Interoperability
    • Network elements
      • Clients
      • Servers
      • Routers
      • Gateways
      • VoIP networks
      • Network management nodes
      • Transition nodes
      • Firewalls

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

transitioning to ipv6 the reality cont
Transitioning To IPv6: The Reality (cont.)
  • Interoperability (cont.)
    • Software
      • Network management and utilities
      • Network Internet infrastructure applications
      • Network systems applications
      • Network end-user applications
      • Network high-availability software
      • Network security software

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

transitioning to ipv6 the reality cont1
Transitioning To IPv6: The Reality (cont.)
  • Availability
  • What’s next?
    • Department of Defense (DoD) has committed to deploying IPv6 by 2008

Guide to TCP/IP, Second Edition

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