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National Governors Association Center for Best Practices. A Policy Academy on Integrating Transportation and Land Use July 25 – 26, 2002 Hall of States Washington, D.C. Transportation, Land Use and Economic Development. Ashley Probart, AICP Transportation Planning Office, Manager

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National governors association center for best practices

National Governors AssociationCenter for Best Practices

A Policy Academy

on Integrating Transportation and Land Use

July 25 – 26, 2002

Hall of States

Washington, D.C.


National governors association center for best practices

Transportation, Land Use and Economic Development

Ashley Probart, AICP

Transportation Planning Office, Manager

Washington State Department of Transportation

July 25 – 26, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

WSDOT Mission Statement

The Washington State Department of Transportation keeps people and business moving by operating and improving the state transportation systems vital to our taxpayers and communities.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

Rapid Growth will continue

Washington Population Growth

1980 – 2025 (in Millions)

Actual

Projected

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

Washington’s Rapid

Population Growth: 1990 - 2000

·7th fastest growing state

·All counties in Washington state had growth;

·All but five counties grew faster than the United States

as a whole.

Washington’s Rapid

Employment Growth: 1990 - 2000

·Washington employment grew by 26.81% (574,300 jobs)

·All counties but one had employment growth

(39 counties in Washington)

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

  • Vibrant Communities

  • Vital Economy

  • Sustainable Environment

  • Uncontrolled Growth

  • Congestion

  • Loss of Resources

Livability

A Balance of Three Key Goals:

Pressures

An Erosion of Livability:

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

Response

  • Shoreline Management Act - 1971

  • State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) - 1972

  • Growth Management Act (GMA) - 1990 & 1991

  • Commute Trip Reduction - 1991

  • GMA (Rural Amendments) - 1997

  • Blue Ribbon Commission on Transportation - 2000

  • 2002 Legislation

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

GMA - Major Components

  • Critical Areas – Resource Protection

  • Land Use Management

  • Transportation

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

GMA - Effects

  • Comprehensive plans required

  • Creates Regional Transportation Planning Organizations (RTPOs) -- includes federal MPOs and creates TPOs for

    • rural Washington

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

GMA – Fundamental Policies

  • “Bottom Up Approach” – local government controlled

  • State retained the siting of essential state facilities

  • Differentiates between urban and non-urban Washington

  • “Pay as You Grow” – Truth in Planning

    • - Impact Fees Authorized

    • - “Concurrency”

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

4. Pay as You Grow – “Concurrency”

  • Link between land use and transportation;

  • Public facilities and services must be provided concurrent with new development;

  • “concurrent with development” defined as: improvements or strategies are in place at the time of development, or a financial commitment is in place to complete the improvements or strategies within 6 years.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

GMA – Transportation Goals

  • Encourage Urban Growth

  • Reduce Sprawl

  • Multimodal Transportation

  • Public Facilities & Services

  • Economic Development

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

GMA – Meeting Transportation Goals

1. Encourage Urban Growth

2. Reduce Sprawl

  • Each new Washington resident used less newly developed land than all but six other states

  • Many counties are successfully channeling growth into existing cities and towns: In King County, 96% of new growth is in Urban Growth Areas, 4% in rural areas.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

GMA – Meeting Transportation Goals

3. Multimodal Transportation

4. Public Facilities & Services

  • Reducing sprawl will reduce trips

  • Concurrency has had mixed results

  • GMA saves taxpayers money: Sprawl has public costs twice that of Smart Growth

  • Impact fees are helping

  • Serious funding issues for all transportation modes

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

GMA – Meeting Transportation Goals

5. Economic Development

  • GMA regulatory reform changed permitting

  • GMA capital facilities planning & economic development planning has lead to new jobs.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

Case Study -- Economic Development

  • City of Cheney in Spokane County,

  • Eastern Washington

    • Used its GMA capital facilities planning and economic development planning to bring 900 new jobs to a city of 8,700 people.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

GMA – Transportation Investment Goals

5. Economic Development(cont’d)

  • Subarea planning and planned action ordinance has sped up permitting.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

Case Study -- Economic Development

  • City of Everett, Snohomish County,

  • Northwestern Washington

  • Used subarea planning and a planned action ordinance to speed permitting and enhance permitting certainty in Southwest Everett.

  • Since subarea was adopted, about 25 projects have been reviewed. Of those projects, only two fell outside the scope of the single environmental review completed for the subarea plan and required additional review.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

Legislative Results

2002

  • Transportation Efficiency Act (ESHB 2304)

  • Regional Transportation Investment District (RTID)

  • Referendum 51 on Transportation Taxes and Fees

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

Transportation Efficiency Act (ESHB 2304)

  • Accountability;

  • Several multimodal modeling requirements:

    • An analytic tool using a common methodology to measure benefits and costs of all modes.

    • Transportation demand modeling tools to evaluate investments based on best mode or mix; to meet long-term demand; at the lowest cost.

    • Multimodal corridor analysis on major improvements over $100 million.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

Modeling Tool: Where We’re Going

Prototype: Cross Cascades Corridor Analysis

  • A broad tool that looks at economic model from a spatial perspective.

  • Examines what happens when a transportation element is added to a corridor.

  • Examines how a candidate transportation project affects the land use and economy of a corridor.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

Regional Transportation Investment District (RTID)

  • Allows counties of King, Pierce & Snohomish to form a RTID

  • Projects: Capital improvements to “Highways of Statewide Significance” (HSS)

  • Adding:

    • - Lane capacity, - Bus pull-outs;

    • - HOV lanes, - Buses;

    • - Park & ride lots, - Vans for van pools;

    • - Fly-over ramps; - Signalization and ramp metering; and

    • - Other transportation system management improvements.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

Referendum 51 on Transportation Taxes and Fees:

  • Referendum on November 2002 ballot

  • Financing transportation improvements through transportation fees and taxes.

  • Increased weight fees on trucks and large vehicles

  • Fuel excise taxes

  • Sales taxes on vehicles

  • Does not fully address all transportation improvement needs.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

10 Years Later

  • GMA is working.

  • GMA is dynamic.

  • GMA is here to stay.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

What Works?

  • Cities and Counties that stick to their vision have comprehensive plans that mean something.

  • Enhanced public involvement in planning.

  • Measurably successful in slowing sprawl in some communities.

  • Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) expands transportation choices for commuters and improves transportation system efficiency.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

Commute Trip Reduction Program

  • 1,117 worksites in 9 participating counties;

  • Almost 550,000 employees (27% of employees in the state);

  • Participating counties: 1993 - 71.5% drive alone commute trips, 2001- 64.9% drive alone commute trips;

  • USDOT Commuter Choice Pioneer Award (2002)- Only state DOT recognized.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

Impacts of Growth:

·More people demanding more services impacts every element of government.

·Many annexed areas or incorporated areas do not have urban level of services such as sidewalks, street lighting or adequate capacity.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

What isn’t Working?

  • Cities and counties need more financial tools / resources to target infrastructure investments that accommodate growth consistent with plans.

  • Unequal playing fields between local jurisdictions:

    • Punishes those that try to make growth pay for growth,

    • Creates problems in transportation and concurrency

    • Creates incentives for development outside of Urban Growth Areas (UGAs).

  • Still not enough public buy-in in many communities.

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


National governors association center for best practices

Final Thoughts

  • Measuring “success” takes time.

  • Local zoning is a powerful tool.

  • State involvement is necessary for Washington: - Comprehensive plan review

    • - Assistance to small jurisdictions

    • - Financial incentives (Grant programs, state investment in jurisdictions who plan for growth)

    • - State investments that are consistent with growth management

National Governor’s Association – Center for Best Practices July 25, 2002


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