Translations and Cultural Adaptations of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery

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Neurocognition Committee for MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery. Keith Nuechterlein (UCLA) - Co-Chair Michael Green (UCLA) - Co-ChairDeanna Barch (Washington University)Jonathan Cohen (Princeton University)Susan Essock (Mt. Sinai School of Medicine)Wayne Fenton (NIMH)Fred Frese (Summit Count

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Translations and Cultural Adaptations of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery

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1. Translations and Cultural Adaptations of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Keith H. Nuechterlein Michael F. Green Robert S. Kern

2. Neurocognition Committee for MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Keith Nuechterlein (UCLA) - Co-Chair Michael Green (UCLA) - Co-Chair Deanna Barch (Washington University) Jonathan Cohen (Princeton University) Susan Essock (Mt. Sinai School of Medicine) Wayne Fenton (NIMH) Fred Frese (Summit County Recovery Project) Jim Gold (Maryland Psychiatric Research Center) Terry Goldberg (NIMH) Robert Heaton (UCSD) Richard Keefe (Duke University) Helena Kraemer (Stanford University) Daniel Weinberger (NIMH) Steve Zalcman (NIMH)

4. MATRICS ASSESSMENT, INC. A 501 (c) (3) non-profit company created to publish and coordinate distribution of the MCCB The principal organizers -- Nuechterlein and Green -- receive no financial compensation from MATRICS Assessment, Inc. The translations of the MCCB to other languages have been completed through this nonprofit company

5. Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the MCCB With the acceptance of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) by the U.S. NIMH and FDA, we were immediately asked to adapt the battery for international clinical trials of cognitive enhancers and to make it available for international academic research on cognition in schizophrenia We educated ourselves about the appropriate steps in this process: Hambleton, R.K., Merenda, P.F., & Spielberger, C.D. (eds.), Adapting Educational and Psychological Tests for Cross-Cultural Assessment. Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005.

6. MATRICS-CT: Goals of the Translation Work Stream To establish high-priority languages for translation of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) to facilitate international clinical trials; To create professionally translated and culturally adapted versions of the MCCB in these languages that are approved and licensed by test developers and intellectual property (IP) owners; To print and arrange distribution of the translated MCCB versions; and To gather community normative data to aid interpretation of these translated MCCB versions.

7. MATRICS-CT: Consortium-Selected Languages Spanish (for Spain, plus dialect version for Central and South America) Simplified Chinese German Hindi Russian

8. Languages Recently Funded by Individual Companies Japanese Italian Hebrew Croatian

10. Challenges and Solutions during Translation and Adaptation of the MCCB Hopkins Verbal Learning Test – Revised A few literal translations would have resulted in words that would very rarely be used within a semantic class in another language Substituted a word in the same semantic class that has similar word frequency as the original word within the English language (e.g., English: bluebird, Spanish: sparrow, German: thrush, Hindi: pigeon) Letter-Number Span – for Chinese MCCB Chinese is character-based and does not involve a sequential alphabet, so ordering “letters” is not possible After considering alternatives, decided that Spatial Span alone can adequately measure working memory in Chinese MCCB

13. Why Collect Community Normative Data for the MCCB? Improves ability to detect “signal” in clinical trials as it reduces error variance due to bad scaling Puts all tests on common metric (based on mean & SD of stratified community sample) Enables valid composite scores (e.g., overall score) Enables valid comparisons between cognitive domains (to detect domain-specific effects) Provides basis for age, gender, and education corrections

14. Why Collect Community Normative Data for Translated Versions of the MCCB? Detects and adjusts for differences in difficulty level between English and translated tests Detects and adjusts for cultural variations in meaning of items (e.g., Managing Emotions) Puts scores on common metric across languages (based on mean & SD of stratified community samples) Enables comparisons across samples using different languages (to compare findings and combine data across languages)

16. Distribution of Commercially Available MCCB in 1st Tier Languages Description of distribution process is available through MATRICS Assessment, Inc., website (www.matricsinc.org) To obtain the translated MCCBs, see Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. (www.parinc.com) or Multi-Health Systems (www.mhs.com)

17. Translations for Academic Research Not externally funded, but permission process is available through MATRICS Assessment, Inc. (www.matricsinc.org) Translations for academic research are completed for Norwegian, Japanese, and Italian and have been authorized for Polish and Turkish Applications are being processed for Brazilian Portuguese, Danish, and Dutch Inquiries have been received for Korean and French

18. Translations for Academic Research Steps to convert to commercial-quality clinical trials or clinical use version: Legal agreements with test IP holders Translation QA check by a professional translation company Translation of any components of chapters 5 and 6 of the MCCB Manual that were omitted Page composition Initial print run

19. Summary Versions of the MCCB in Spanish for Spain, Spanish for Central and South America, Simplified Chinese, German, and Russian are published. Hindi will be published in the next month. Collection of community normative data is underway in China and Spain. Normative studies for Russian and Spanish for Latin America will start soon. Norms for German and Hindi are needed. New pathway allows companies to contract with the non-profit company directly for additional languages. MAI is finding ways to make translations faster and more economical, while still available to all.

20. Summary A separate translation permission process is available to academic researchers who wish to use the MCCB in their own research program. Steps to convert an academic translation to a commercial clinical trials version are now worked out and are underway for Japanese and Italian.

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