Introduction to oracle architecture
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Oracle Training Institutes in Hyderabad

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Oracle Database


Client Computer

Lan Or


Lan Or


Oracle Architecture

Client Server Environment

Application By Java or .Net Framework

Oracle Versions

  • E.F.T. Codd implement rules for RDBMS.

  • Oracle 7 ( Implements 7 Rules)

  • Oracle 8 (First stable version of Oracle)

  • 9i (integrated with java and supports all utilities which are used By Java.)

  • 10G (Data Grid)

  • 11i called Oracle Financials Strong competitor for SAP and ERP.

  • JD Adward, People Soft, SBAAN are new competitor to SAP and ERP.

Oracle Platforms

  • Solaries is the 1st oracle platform provided by Sun Micro system ( Now JAVA is oracle prod).

  • Oracle for Linux.

  • PWR Builder introduce by oracle used for data ware housing competitor for ETL sys. By Informetica.

  • Cognos powerful tool as Infor. Used for data ware housing.

  • ERWIN strong competitor to Oracle designer.

  • IDE as VB & .NET called SQL developer & J Dev.

  • Mysql, Teradata, sybase, DB1,DB2, MS. Sql server.

  • 3rd Party tools as TODD by Quest Technology.

What is Data?64##

Data is Defined as

  • A value for an attribute of an entity.

  • Entity is Real World Thing which exist and can be described in terms of one or more attributes.

  • Database is Organized value of all SAME type of entity.

Memory of ORACLE( Data Dict.)

  • Arrangement of system table stores data about data called as METADATA.

  • RDBMS discovered for non procedural access.




Table Space


Parameter File,

Control File,

Redo Log File,

Data File

Parameter File

  • This is the first file oracle read at start of the database. Parameters are system variables sets environment of system, file also called as init.ora.

  • From Oracle 9i SPFILE is introduce and this file is binary formatted and it is the binary version of init.ora.

Control File

  • Its important file of Oracle Database and if control file is lost it means no recovery is possible also it is binary formatted.

  • Oracle multiplex the file and stored in 3 files same locations name as control1.ctl, control2.ctl, control3.ctl.

3 Important Numbers

  • SCN : System Change Number.

    It is assigned by oracle to every committed transaction always increasing..

  • LSN: Log Sequence Number.

    The sequential number assign to redo log as they get filled and recycled.

  • CPC :Check Point Counter.

    Its is also ever increasing number and to every check point is assigned.

Logical Database Structure

  • Oracle uses logical database structure to store data on physical operating system file.

  • DATA BLOCK : Is the foundation of oracle storage. It consist of number of bytes of disk space in OS.

  • EXTENT : An extents is two or more contagious oracle data blocks and a unit of space allocation.

  • SAGMENT : A segment is a set of extents allocated to logical structure like table or oracle objects.

  • TABLESPACE: A table space is a set of one or more data files consist of related Segments.


  • Schema is set of objects own by User Account.

  • Each schema has user account but each user don’t need schema.

  • A user account is account with database having privileges to perform predefined activities on data.

  • Schema may not exist with user account but user account is exist without schema.

  • Purpose : Maintenance of object like backup & recovery, implementation of security and access level.

Redo Log File

  • Oracle used redo base recovery and allow to recover only committed transaction till the point of failure.

  • The redo base recovery in oracle is implemented through the redo log file.

  • When system fails then oracle read history from these redo log file and guaranties the recovery till the point of failure.

  • These files are created at the creation of oracle db.

  • The files are reusable and used as round robin passion.

  • Maximum size is 50Mb.

Redo Log Copies stored to 10 different geographic locations


log N..

Redo log 7

Redo log 6

Redo log 5

Redo log 4

Redo log 3

Redo log 2

Redo log 1

Redo log 1

Redo log 2

Log Switch

System Global Area SGA

Data Buffer



Shared SQL


Large Pool

Fixed TtPool

Shared pool area / Data Diction.

Redo Log Buffer

3 Types of Buffer

  • Free Buffer : A buffer which is ready to take new data.

  • Pinned Buffer : A buffer which have data under use (not committed or not rollback.)

  • Dirty Buffer : A buffer which have data which is committed called permanent.

LRU Algorithm

  • List Recently Used : This algorithm is used to write data from data buffer pool (dirty buffers) in to data files.

    Data Buffer Pool: Divided into 3 sections.

    Keep Buffer Pool : It holds the frequently requested data.(Based on MRU).

    Recycle Buffer Pool : The data which is not requested immediately after used is loaded in recycle buffer pool and eliminated after used.

    Default Buffer Pool :The data which is not required in above pools is loaded in this pool.

Redo Log Buffer

  • The redo log buffer is the place where data or entries are stored before writing to redo log file.

  • All entries are written in serially to redo log file due to SCN.

  • When user commits the data the data written to redo log file.

  • If not commit or rollback then 75% full written to redo log file.

Shared Pool Area

  • This is the most busy area of SGA.

  • 3 stages of SQL.

  • Parsing : It resolve the reference made to the different object in SQL statement resolution of privileges.

  • Planning : After parsing the statement hand over to Optimizer for drawing execution plan to performing activities in SQL statement. Optimizer breaking down the SQL statement to get result.

  • Execution : To get result and display as per request.

Parsing Types

  • Hard Parse

  • Soft Parse

  • Important Processes

  • Reco

  • Lck

  • Smon

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