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University of Bern, 17th November 2010. The recent solar minimum How unprecedent is the Sun's behavior?. Andrea Opitz CESR (CNRS-UPS) University of Toulouse, France. Solar - terrestrial relations. Solar activity cycles. SOHO (NASA/ESA). Solar activity cycles.

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The recent solar minimum how unprecedent is the sun s behavior

University of Bern, 17th November 2010

The recent solar minimumHow unprecedent is the Sun's behavior?

Andrea Opitz

CESR (CNRS-UPS)

University of Toulouse, France



Solar activity cycles
Solar activity cycles

SOHO (NASA/ESA)


Solar activity cycles1
Solar activity cycles

 Few hundred years of sunspot record available

David Hathaway, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

 Space Age (1960's - today): just a few solar cycles, low statistics




Sw velocity vs latitude
SW velocity vs. latitude

Solar minimum

Solar maximum

Now

McComas et al. GRL 2008



Twin stereo spacecraft
Twin STEREO spacecraft

Opitz, Karrer, Wurz et al. 2009 Solar Physics


Stereo plastic
STEREO PLASTIC

 SW bulk velocity

 SW temperature

 SW density

Group:

P. Bochsler, P. Wurz, R. Karrer, A. Opitz, L. Blush, H. Daoudi, J. Fischer, M. Sigrist et al. (UoBe)

A. B. Galvin, L. Kistler et al. (UNH)


Temporal evolution of the solar wind

Opitz et al. 2009, Solar Physics

PLASTIC proton velocity 

0.5 day: ~0.95

2 days: ~0.85

STA STB

Opitz et al. 2010, Solar Physics

SWEA electron density 

0.5 day: ~0.80

2 days: ~0.65

STA STB

SWEA


Temporal evolution by cross correlation
Temporal evolution by cross-correlation

STA STB

timelag of ~6 days

Riley, Luhmann, Opitz, Linker, and Mikic 2010 JGR


Recent sun and solar wind observations facts
Recent Sun and solar wind observations: Facts

  • longer solar activity minimum

  • solar magnetic field weaker

  • coronal holes at low latitudes

  • recurrent stream structure broader

  • low solar wind densities

  • total solar irradiance lower


Solar activity minimum longer
Solar activity minimum: longer

Russell, Luhmann, Jian et al. 2010


Solar polar magnetic field weaker
Solar polar magnetic field: weaker

red: South

blue: North

Wilcox Solar Observatory


Sw velocity vs latitude1
SW velocity vs. latitude

Solar minimum

Solar maximum

Now

McComas et al. GRL 2008


Recurrent stream structure stronger and broader
Recurrent stream structure:stronger and broader

Gibson et al. 2009


Terrestrial response 1

  • Quiet solar minimum, though geoeffective.

  • Interaction of the strong, broad stream structures with the terrestrial magnetosphere.

  • Proof: sunspot number alone can not give a good prediction.


Solar irradiance
Solar irradiance

 TSI lower

 UV lower

 visible higher

Haigh 2007


Solar irradiance euv
Solar irradiance: EUV

Solomon et al. 2010


Terrestrial response 2
Terrestrial response 2

  • Opportunity to separate the climatic effects of solar and anthropogenic sources.

    • Total solar irradiance lower.

    • Spectral solar irradiance: UV lower, visible higher.

  • Maunder and Dalton minimums



Solar maximum predictions
Solar maximum predictions

  • weaker

  • normal

  • stronger


Solar eruption risks
Solar eruption risks

  • telegraph system collapsed in 1859

  • electric network collapsed in 1989

  • electric, oil and gas network

  • satellites: GPS, communication and scientific

  • pilots and astronauts

  • radio communication


Summary
Summary

  • longer solar activity minimum

  • solar magnetic field weaker

  • coronal holes at low latitudes

  • recurrent stream structure broader

  • low solar wind densities

  • total solar irradiance lower


Questions to the audience
Questions to the audience

  • How much does such an unprecedent solar behavior influence your work?

    • Climatology?

    • Planetology?

    • Cosmic rays?

    • Space instrumentation?

    • Solar and Stellar Physics?

Dr. Andrea OPITZ, CESR (CNRS-UPS), University of Toulouse, France


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

  • Cecile Bonneau: 'Science et vie' -> Nov/Dec 2010

  • Janet Luhmann: solar wind structures

  • STEREO PLASTIC: P. Bochsler, P. Wurz, R. Karrer, A. Opitz, L. Blush et al. (UoBe) + UNH


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