Early detection of prostate cancer
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 33

EARLY DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 83 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

EARLY DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER. Larry C. Munch, MD’ Boulder Medical Center 303-440-3093. WHERE IS THE PROSTATE FOUND? . The prostate is found only in men. It is about the size of a walnut and found in front of the rectum, behind the penis, and under the bladder. .

Download Presentation

EARLY DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Early detection of prostate cancer

EARLY DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER

Larry C. Munch, MD’

Boulder Medical Center

303-440-3093


Where is the prostate found

WHERE IS THE PROSTATE FOUND?

  • The prostate is found only in men. It is about the size of a walnut and found in front of the rectum, behind the penis, and under the bladder.


What does the prostate do

WHAT DOES THE PROSTATE DO?

  • The prostate makes semen, the fluid that protects and feeds sperm.


Prostate cancer

PROSTATE CANCER

  • After skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men.

  • Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths for men.

  • The National Cancer Institute says that one in six men will get cancer of the prostate during their lifetime.

  • African-American men and men with a family history of prostate cancer have a higher chance of getting prostate cancer.

  • Prostate cancer is different from many cancers because it often grows very slowly. In 2012, only about 28,000 Americans died from prostate cancer, compared to 241,740 men diagnosed with the disease. Many men with prostate cancer will never know they have it unless they get tested. In these cases, symptoms or problems are more likely to result from testing and treatment than from the cancer itself.


Early detection of prostate cancer

PSA

  • PSA (prostate-specific antigen) is a substance made by the prostate gland. The level of PSA in a man’s blood can be a marker of many different prostate diseases, not just prostate cancer. High PSA levels can be caused by more than just prostate cancer. Other causes of higher PSA levels are:

  • – prostatitis (swelling of the prostate) and other types of urinary tract infections (UTIs);

  • – benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH – enlargement of the prostate);

  • – injury; or

  • – treatments such as prostate biopsies (tissue samples) or cystoscopy (a test to look inside the urethra and bladder)

  • A prostate biopsy (tissue sample) is the only way to know for sure if you have prostate cancer.


Should i get a psa test

SHOULD I GET A PSA TEST?

  • One use of the PSA test is to screen for prostate cancer. Screening means to look for cancer early, before you see any signs of illness. If prostate cancer has spread outside the prostate by the time it is found, treatment is less likely to cure the cancer. The PSA test may let doctors find the cancer early when treatment might work better. This may stop the cancer from harming your health. This is the major possible benefit of screening.

  • On the other hand, follow-up tests and treatment can have risks. A biopsy can sometimes cause bleeding or infection. Treatment for prostate cancer can harm your health by causing sexual, urinary and bowel problems.

  • Many prostate cancers are so slow growing they don’t need treatment. If the cancer does not need treatment, the side effects of treatment may be worse than having the cancer. On the other hand, if the cancer does do better with treatment, then the harms of treatment may be worthwhile.

  • The problem is that doctors cannot know for certain which cancers will spread and which will never cause health problems.


Psa test results could be influenced by some important factors

PSA TEST results could be influenced by some important factors

  • –  Blood PSA levels tend to rise with age.

  • –  Larger prostates make more PSA.

  • –  Change in PSA levels over time (known as PSA velocity) can be markers of both cancer risk and how quickly a cancer may be growing.


Possible benefits of having a psa test

Possible benefits of having a PSA test:

  • –  A normal PSA test may put your mind at ease.

  • –  A PSA test may find prostate cancer early before it has spread.

  • –  Early treatment of prostate cancer may help some men slow the spread of the disease.

  • –  Early treatment of prostate cancer may help some men live longer.


Possible risks of having a psa test

Possible risks of having a PSA test:

  • –  The PSA test is not perfect. A normal PSA result may miss some prostate cancers (a “false negative”).

  • –  Sometimes the test results suggest something is wrong when it isn’t (a “false positive”). This can cause unneeded stress and worry.

  • – A “false positive” PSA result may lead to an unneeded prostate biopsy (tissue sample).

  • – A positive PSA test may find a prostate cancer that is slow-growing and never would have caused you problems.

  • – Treatment of prostate cancer can cause side effects. Short- or long-term problems that can occur are issues with getting erections (“ED”), leaking urine, or bowel function.


If i get a psa test what happens next

IF I GET A PSA TEST, WHAT HAPPENS NEXT?

  • There are four possible outcomes to a PSA test:

  • Your PSA is normal and you DO NOT have prostate cancer (a true negative).

  • Your PSA is higher than normal and you DO have prostate cancer (a true positive).

  • Your PSA is higher than normal but you DO NOT have prostate cancer (a false positive).

  • Your PSA is normal but you DO have prostate cancer (a false negative).

  • Most high PSA results are false positives (about 70 percent)

  • There is a small chance you may have prostate cancer even with a normal PSA test (about a 1-2 percent risk)


What happens if my psa result is high

WHAT HAPPENS IF MY PSA RESULT IS HIGH?

  • Don’t panic. If your doctor says that your PSA is high,this does not necessarily mean that you have prostate cancer. Most causes of a high PSA are not due to cancer.

  • To know if your high test result is from cancer or some other cause, your doctor may repeat your PSA test or may suggest a prostate biopsy (tissue sample). A biopsyis the only way to know for sure if you have prostate cancer.


What is the average risk of prostate cancer

WHAT IS THE AVERAGE RISK OF PROSTATE CANCER?

  • One in six men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. On average, the risk of dying from prostate cancer is about three out of 100 American men. African- American men are at increased risk. They face a one-in- three chance of being diagnosed. About five out of 100 African-American men die from prostate cancer. Men whose father, brother or son had prostate cancer are also at increased risk of getting prostate cancer.


Does psa testing lower prostate cancer death

DOES PSA TESTING LOWER PROSTATE CANCER DEATH?

  • Two large studies have looked at the effect of PSA testing on death from prostate cancer. Both studies showed that PSA testing increased the numbers of prostate cancers found. (About 40 more men were diagnosed per 1,000 tested.) Only one study showed a benefit from testing.

  • In that study, out of every 1,000 men who were screened with PSA and followed for 11 years, there was one fewer prostate cancer death. So we know that testing finds more cases of prostate cancer. Some of these extra prostate cancers would cause harm without treatment. But some of the extra prostate cancers found would not have caused harm or death. Current research studies suggest that if PSA testing lowers the risk of dying from prostate cancer, it does so by a small amount. But testing finds more prostate cancer in men, and some of these men are bothered by treatment side effects.


What are my treatment choices if i have prostate cancer

WHAT ARE MY TREATMENT CHOICES IF I HAVE PROSTATE CANCER?

  • In deciding whether to get a PSA test, it may be helpful to think about what you might do if you found out you had prostate cancer. Three common treatment choices are:

  • Prostatectomy (surgery to remove the prostate)

  • Radiation

  • a. External beam radiation

  • b. Brachytherapy (placing radioactive seeds in the prostate)

  • Active surveillance (watch closely with tests, possibly treat in future)

  • Watchful waiting (watch for signs of prostate cancer, possibly treat in future)


Prostatectomy or radiation

PROSTATECTOMY OR RADIATION?

  • Prostatectomy or radiation tries to remove all the cancer cells. Prostatectomy is surgery to remove the prostate.

  • Radiation tries to kill the prostate cancer with high-dose X-rays. The X-rays can come from a source outside the body (external beam radiation) or from radioactive seeds placed in the prostate (brachytherapy).

  • Some research has shown that surgery or radiation may make it less likely for men with prostate cancer to die from prostate cancer within 10 to 20 years.

  • Other research has shown that surgery or radiation may not lower the chances that men with prostate cancer will die from prostate cancer.

  • However, it is also known that these treatments can cause problems. Below are the chances of common problems from two treatment choices.


Side effects from treatment

SIDE EFFECTS FROM TREATMENT

  • Bothered by problems with sexual function

  • Surgery: 43-63 in 100

  • Radiation: 38-57 in 100

  • Bothered by problems with urination

  • Surgery: 15-42 in 100

  • Radiation: 13-52 in 100

  • Bothered by problems with bowel movements

  • Surgery: 5-11 in 100

  • Radiation: 10-17 in 100


Active surveillance or watchful waiting no immediate treatment

ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE OR WATCHFUL WAITING (NO IMMEDIATE TREATMENT)

  • Men with slower-growing tumors and older men may choose not to be treated right away. Remember, many prostate cancers, especially those with lower PSA values, won’t grow quickly enough to cause harm.

  • Active surveillance is when your doctors watch you closely with regular PSA (and other) tests. If your cancer starts to grow quickly, you can choose a more active treatment in the future.

  • Watchful waiting involves no active treatment or testing. If you start to show signs of prostate cancer, you could choose a more active treatment in the future.

  • While these choices may seem like ‘doing nothing,’ some studies have shown that in the short term (10 years or so), men who choose no immediate treatment are no more likely to die from prostate cancer than men who choose surgery or radiation. These men may spare themselves treatment side effects.


Early detection of prostate cancer1

EARLY DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER

  • On May 3, 2013, the American Urological Association (AUA) released a new Clinical Guideline on the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer


Purpose

Purpose

  • To address prostate cancer early detection for the purpose of reducing prostate cancer mortality

  • Early detection and screening both imply detection of disease at an early, pre-symptomatic stage when a man would have no reason to seek medical care


Methodology

Methodology

  • This search covered articles in English published between 1995 and 2013

  • Statements presented in the guideline as Standards, Recommendations or Options

  • The body of evidence for a particular intervention was assigned a strength rating of A (high), B (moderate) or C (low)


Guideline statements

GUIDELINE STATEMENTS

  • Guideline Statement 1: The Panel recommends against PSA screening in men under age 40 years. (Recommendation; Evidence Strength Grade C)

  • In this age group there is a low prevalence of clinically detectable prostate cancer, no evidence demonstrating benefit of screening and likely the same harms of screening as in other age groups.

  • 700 cases being reported to the SEER registry between 2001 and 2007


Guideline statements1

GUIDELINE STATEMENTS

  • Guideline Statement 2: The Panel does not recommend routine screening in men between ages 40 to 54 years at average risk. (Recommendation; Evidence Strength Grade C)

  • For men younger than age 55 years at higher risk (e.g. positive family history or African American race), decisions regarding prostate cancer screening should be individualized.

  • PSA screening of men in their 40s is associated with a 10-year prostate cancer-specific mortality rate of 0.037 deaths/1000 men compared to 0.041 deaths/1000 men if no screening was performed


Guideline statements2

GUIDELINE STATEMENTS

  • Guideline Statement 3: For men ages 55 to 69 years the Panel recognizes that the decision to undergo PSA screening involves weighing the benefits of preventing prostate cancer mortality in 1 man for every 1,000 men screened over a decade against the known potential harms associated with screening and treatment. For this reason, the Panel strongly recommends shared decision-making for men age 55 to 69 years that are considering PSA screening, and proceeding based on a man's values and preferences. (Standard; Evidence Strength Grade B)

  • The greatest benefit of screening appears to be in men ages 55 to 69 years.

  • Men with less than a 10 to 15 year life expectancy are unlikely to realize a benefit from aggressive treatment for localized prostate cancer


Guideline statements3

GUIDELINE STATEMENTS

  • Guideline Statement 4: To reduce the harms of screening, a routine screening interval of two years or more may be preferred over annual screening in those men who have participated in shared decision-making and decided on screening. As compared to annual screening, it is expected that screening intervals of two years preserve the majority of the benefits and reduce overdiagnosis and false positives. (Option; Evidence Strength Grade C)

  • Additionally, intervals for rescreening can be individualized by a baseline PSA level.

  • Screening men every two years preserves the majority (at least 80%) of lives saved compared with annual screening while materially reducing the number of tests, the chance of a false positive test and overdiagnosis


Guideline statements4

GUIDELINE STATEMENTS

  • Guideline Statement 5: The Panel does not recommend routine PSA screening in men age 70+ years or any man with less than a 10 to 15 year life expectancy. (Recommendation; Evidence Strength Grade C)

  • Some men age 70+ years who are in excellent health may benefit from prostate cancer screening.

  • The ratio of harm to benefit increases with age and that the likelihood of overdiagnosis is extremely high particularly among men with low-risk disease

  • Although men in this age group have a higher prevalence of prostate cancer and a higher incidence of fatal tumors, they also have increased competing mortality compared to younger men


Guideline statements5

GUIDELINE STATEMENTS

  • Increasing the prostate biopsy threshold based on evidence that men with a PSA level above 10ng/ml are more likely to benefit from treatment of prostate cancer when compared to those with a PSA below 10ng/ml

  • Among men aged 70 to 79 years, half or more of cases detected by PSA screening with PSA less than 10 and Gleason score 6 or below are overdiagnosed

  • Among men over age 80 years, three-fourths or more of cases detected by PSA screening with PSA less than 10 and Gleason score 6 or below are overdiagnosed


Aua nomenclature linking statement type to evidence strength

AUA NomenclatureLinking Statement Type to Evidence Strength

  • Standard: Directive statement that an action should (benefits outweigh risks/burdens) or should not (risks/burdens outweigh benefits) be taken based on Grade A or B evidence

  • Recommendation: Directive statement that an action should (benefits outweigh risks/burdens) or should not (risks/burdens outweigh benefits) be taken based on Grade C evidence

  • Option: Non-directive statement that leaves the decision regarding an action up to the individual clinician and patient because the balance between benefits and risks/burdens appears equal or appears uncertain based on Grade A, B or C evidence

  • Clinical Principle: a statement about a component of clinical care that is widely agreed upon by urologists or other clinicians for which there may or may not be evidence in the medical literature

  • Expert Opinion: a statement, achieved by consensus of the Panel, that is based on members' clinical training, experience, knowledge, and judgment for which there is no evidence


Evidence profile for mortality outcomes

Evidence profile for mortality outcomes

Prostate cancer-specific mortality

  • 162,243 men

  • Age 55-69, PSA every four years

  • 1 death fewer per 1000 men screened


Harm outcomes

Harm Outcomes

  • False positive tests

  • 75.9%Proportion of men with PSA >3.0 ng/mL and no cancer on subsequent biopsy

  • 12%Cumulative risk of at least 1 false-positive test (PSA> 4.0 µg/L) after 3 rounds of testing every four years

  • 13%Cumulative risk of at least 1 false-positive test (PSA> 4.0 µg/L) after 4 rounds of annual testing

  • 5.5%Risk for undergoing at least 1 biopsy due to a false-positive test


Harm outcomes1

Harm Outcomes

  • Overdiagnosis

  • 66%Cases overdiagnosed as a fraction of screen-detected cases (ERSPC (Rotterdam) age 55-67 years, four year screening interval)


Harm outcomes2

Harm Outcomes

  • Lead time

  • 5.4-6.9 yearsAverage time by which screening advances diagnosis among cases who would have been diagnosed during their lifetimes in the absence of screening


Harm outcomes3

Harm Outcomes

  • Minor (hematuria/ hematospermia)

  • 20-50%first time sextant biopsy

  • Composite medical complications (infection, bleeding, urinary difficulties)

  • 68/10,000


In summary

IN SUMMARY...

  • A normal PSA test may miss some prostate cancers (a “false negative”).

  • Sometimes the test results suggest something is wrong when it isn’t (a “false positive”). This can cause unneeded worry and stress.

  • A “false positive” PSA test may lead to an unneeded prostate biopsy (tissue sample).

  • A high PSA test may find a prostate cancer that is slow-growing and never would have caused you problems.

  • Treatment of prostate cancer may cause you harm. Problems with getting erections, leaking urine or bowel function can occur.


  • Login