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1. 9. C H A P T E R. Plyometric Training. Chapter Outline.  Plyometric mechanics and physiology.  Plyometric program design.  Plyometrics and other forms of exercise.  Safety considerations.  Further research. Mechanical Model.  Mechanical Model.  SEC= connective tissue, tendon.

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9

C H A P T E R

Plyometric Training


Chapter Outline

Plyometric mechanics and physiology

Plyometric program design

Plyometrics and other forms of exercise

Safety considerations

Further research


Mechanical Model

Mechanical Model

SEC= connective tissue, tendon

When the SEC is stretched it stores elastic NRG

The SEC acts like a spring that is stretches, then if followed by a concentric contraction aids in the total force production

If a concentric contraction doesn’t immediately follow the stored NRG by the SEC is lost as heat

 Rubber Band Example


Neurophysiological Model

 Stimulation of the Muscle Spindle – sensitive to rate and magnitude of a stretch

Stretch Reflex – Fig 19.2

When a quick stretch is detected, muscular activity reflexively ↑ the activity in the agonist muscle which ↑ the force the muscle produces

If a concentric contraction doesn’t immediately follow the stored NRG by the stretch reflex is lost as heat


Illustration of the Stretch Reflex


Stretch-Shortening Cycle –SSC

Phase I—Eccentric (stretch of the agonist muscle)

-Elastic energy is stored in the SEC.

-Muscle spindles are stimulated.

Phase II—Amortization (pause between phases I and III)

-Ia afferent nerves synapse with alpha motor neurons.

-Alpha motor neurons transmit signals to agonist muscle group.

Phase III—Concentric (shortening of agonist muscle fibers)

-Elastic energy is released from the SEC.

-Alpha motor neurons stimulate the agonist muscle group.


The stretch-shortening cycle combines mechanical and neurophysiological mechanisms and is the basis of plyometric exercise. A rapid eccentric muscle action stimulates the stretch reflex and storage of elastic energy, which increase the force produced during the subsequent concentric action.


Program Design

  • Mode - Upper/Lower/Trunk Plyos

  • Intensity – depends on the exercise low to high

  • Frequency – 1-3 per week depending on sport and time of season

  • Recovery – 48-72 hrs b/w days; 1:5 to 1:10 work to rest ratios b/w sets but also depends on sport and time of season


Program Design Cont

  • Volume - # of foot contacts or distance traveled for lower body See Table 19.4; # of throws or catches per workout for upper body

  • Program Length – 6-10 weeks depend on the sport and should be assigned throughout the macrocycle


Program Design Cont

  • Progression – follow rules of resistance training; “systematic ↑ in training frequency, volume and intensity in various combinations”.

  • Warm-Up – should be followed; see Table 19.5 p. 436


Plyometric Training Considerations

  • -Plyometrics and resistance training

  • -Plyometrics and aerobic training

  • -Safety considerations include addressing a pretraining eval, technique, strength, speed, balance, age, physical characteristics, landing surfaces, and equipment to name a few (pp. 437-440)

  • -Depth Jumps – recommended 16-42” with 30-32” the norm; athletes over 220lbs the height should be 18” or less


Proper Plyometric Landing Position


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Jumps in Place

Two-Foot Ankle Hop


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Jumps in Place

Squat Jump


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Jumps in Place

Jump and Reach


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Jumps in Place

Double-Leg Tuck Jump


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Jumps in Place

Split Squat Jump


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Jumps in Place

Cycled Split Squat Jump


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Jumps in Place

Single-Leg Tuck Jump


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Jumps in Place

Pike Jump


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Standing Jumps

Double-Leg Vertical Jump


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Standing Jumps

Jump Over Barrier


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Standing Jumps

Single-Leg Vertical Jump


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Multiple Hops and Jumps

Double-Leg Hop


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Multiple Hops and Jumps

Double-Leg Zigzag Hop


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Multiple Hops and Jumps

Single-Leg Hop


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Multiple Hops and Jumps

Front Barrier Hop


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Multiple Hops and Jumps

Lateral Barrier Hop


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Bounds

Skip


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Bounds

Power Skip


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Bounds

Backward Skip


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Bounds

Single-Arm Alternate-Leg Bound


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Bounds

Double-Arm Alternate-Leg Bound


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Box Drills

Single-Leg Push-Off


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Box Drills

Alternate-Leg Push-Off


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Box Drills

Lateral Push-Off


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Box Drills

Side-to-Side Push-Off


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Box Drills

Jump to Box


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Box Drills

Squat Box Jump


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Box Drills

Lateral Box Jump

Step down


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Box Drills

Jump From Box

Step from box


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Depth Jumps

Depth Jump

Step from box


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3

4

Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Depth Jumps

Depth Jump to Second Box


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Depth Jumps

Squat Depth Jump


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3

Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Depth Jumps

Depth Jump With Lateral Movement


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Depth Jumps

Depth Jump With Standing Long Jump


Lower-Body Plyometric Drills: Depth Jumps

Single-Leg Depth Jump


Upper-Body Plyometric Drills: Throws

Chest Pass


Upper-Body Plyometric Drills: Throws

Two-Hand Overhead Throw


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3

Upper-Body Plyometric Drills: Throws

Two-Hand Side-to-Side Throw


Upper-Body Plyometric Drills: Throws

Single-Arm Throw


Upper-Body Plyometric Drills: Throws

Power Drop


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1

3

Upper-Body Plyometric Drills: Plyometric Push-Ups

Depth Push-Up


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1

3

4

Trunk Plyometrics

45-Degree Sit-Up


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