Vital signs
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Vital Signs. Vital Signs. Provide information about body function Include: temperature pulse respiration blood pressure Changes may be the first sign of disease Accuracy is imperative !. Vital Signs Temperature. Measurement of the balance between heat lost and heat produced

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Vital Signs

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Vital Signs


Vital Signs

  • Provide information about body function

  • Include:

    • temperature

    • pulse

    • respiration

    • blood pressure

  • Changes may be the first

    sign of disease

  • Accuracy is imperative!

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsTemperature

  • Measurement of the balance between heat lost and heat produced

  • Heat lost through:

    • Perspiration

    • Respiration

    • Excretion

  • Heat produced by:

    • Metabolism of food

    • Muscle and gland activity

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsTemperature

Normal ranges

  • 97º - 100º F

  • 36.1º - 37.8º C

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsTemperature

Hypothermia

  • Temperature below 95º F

  • Death can occur if below 93º F

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsTemperature

Hypothermia

Temperature decreases with:

  • environment

  • exposure to cold

  • inactivity

  • sleep

  • starvation

    Symptoms:

  • shivering

  • cold skin

  • confusion

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsTemperature

Hyperthermia

  • Temperature 100-104º F

  • Temperature above 104º F is life-threatening

  • Prolonged hyperthermia may cause brain injury.

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsTemperature

Hyperthermia

Temperature increases with:

  • environment

  • exercise

  • illness, infection, injury

  • stress

    Symptoms:

  • hot, dry, red skin

  • nausea/vomiting

  • headache

  • low blood pressure

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsTemperature

Thermometers

Clinical

Non-mercury glass

Electronic

Aural

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsTemperature

Sites to measure temperature:

  • Aural – auditory canal

  • Axillary – armpit

  • Oral – mouth

  • Rectal – rectum

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsTemperature

  • To record temperature:

    • Oral 98.6º (O)

    • Rectal 99.6º (R)

    • Axillary 97.6º (ax)

    • Aural 98.6º (T)

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsTemperature Measurement

Oral

  • Ask the patient if they have ingested hot or cold food or drink, or smoked within the last ½ hour

  • If yes, wait at least 15 minutes before measuring the oral temperature

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


REPORT

ABNORMAL RESULTS

OF ANY VITAL SIGN

IMMEDIATELY

Vital Signs

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Temperature

Vital Signs

Oral

Demonstrate the skill

Provide for guided practice

Provide for independent practice

Verify student passing

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsTemperature Measurement

  • Aural

  • Pros:

    • Measures core body temperature

    • Fast and convenient

  • Con:

    • Inaccurate if not placed correctly in the ear canal

    • Ear infection

    • Ear wax

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Temperature

Vital Signs

Aural

Demonstrate the skill

Provide for guided practice

Provide for independent practice

Verify student passing

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsPulse

Pressure of blood on artery walls as the heart beats and relaxes

  • Sites:

    Temporal – side of the forehead

    Carotid – side of the neck

    Brachial – inner elbow

    Radial – above the thumb at radius

    Femoral – upper thigh

    Popliteal – behind the knee

    Dorsalis pedis – top of the arch of the foot

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsPulse

When would you use these pulse sites?

Temporal

Carotid

Brachial

Radial

Femoral

Popliteal

Dorsalis pedis

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Normal rate adult (male) 60 – 70 beats per minute

adult (female) 65 – 80 beats per minute

children (over 7) 70 – 100 beats per minute

children (1 – 7) 80 – 110 beats per minute

infants (less than 1 year) 100 – 160 beats per minute

Rhythm regular or irregular

Volume strength of the pulse

Vital SignsPulse

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsPulse

  • Pulse can be increased by:

    • exercise

    • stimulant drugs

    • excitement

    • fever

    • shock

    • nervousness

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsPulse

  • Pulse can be decreased by:

    • sleep

    • depressant drugs

    • heart disease

    • coma

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital Signs

REPORT

ABNORMAL RESULTS

OF ANY VITAL SIGN

IMMEDIATELY

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Radial Pulse

Vital Signs

Demonstrate the skill

Provide for guided practice

Provide for independent practice

Verify student passing

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsApical Pulse

  • Pulse count taken with the stethoscope.

  • Use if the patient has:

    • Irregular heartbeat

    • Arteriosclerosis

    • Weak or rapid radial pulse

    • Infants and children

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Apical Pulse

Vital Signs

Demonstrate the skill

Provide for guided practice

Provide for independent practice

Verify student passing

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsRespiration

Process of taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide

1 inspiration + 1 expiration = respiration

Normal rate:

adults – 12 – 20 breaths per minute

children – 16 – 30 breaths per minute

Evaluate for rhythm and character

Rhythm – regular or irregular

Character – depth, ease of breaths

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsRespiration

  • Abnormal respiratory patterns

    • Apnea – periods of absent breathing

    • Cheyne-stokes – periods of apnea and dyspnea

    • Dyspnea – difficult breathing

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital Signs

REPORT

ABNORMAL RESULTS

OF ANY VITAL SIGN

IMMEDIATELY

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Respirations

Vital Signs

Demonstrate the skill

Provide for guided practice

Provide for independent practice

Verify student passing

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsBlood pressure

Pressure of blood on the arterial walls

Recorded as a fraction: 120/80

Systolic pressure – wall of left ventricle

is contracting

Normal range: 100-140 mm Hg

Diastolic pressure– wall of left ventricle

is resting

Normal range: 60-90 mm Hg

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital SignsBlood pressure

Factors that elevate blood pressure:

  • anxiety

  • eating

  • exercise

  • excitement

  • stimulant drugs

    Factors that lower blood pressure:

  • depressant drugs

  • excessive loss of blood

  • rest

  • shock

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Vital Signs

REPORT

ABNORMAL RESULTS

OF ANY VITAL SIGN

IMMEDIATELY

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Blood Pressure

Vital Signs

Demonstrate the skill

Provide for guided practice

Provide for independent practice

Verify student passing

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Combined Vital SignsTPR BP

Vital Signs

Demonstrate the skill

Provide for guided practice

Provide for independent practice

Verify student passing

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Diagnostic Skills:Height and Weight

Measured if warranted by patient’s age and physical condition

  • Measured routinely:

    • on admission to health care facility

    • as part of annual physical examination

    • each provider visit for children

  • Important for evaluation of laboratory tests

    and calculation of medications

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Diagnostic Skills:Daily Weights

  • Daily weights are used to monitor patients with chronic disease processes:

    • Hormone disorders

    • Renal disorders

    • Heart disease

    • Cancer

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Diagnostic Skills:Daily Weights

  • Guidelines for daily weights:

    use the same scales

    at the same time

    wearing the same type of clothing

    patient voids to empty bladder

  • Make sure to balance the scales before weighing the patient.

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Diagnostic Skills:Daily Weights

OBSERVE SAFETY PRECAUTONS!

Prevent injury from falls and the

protruding height lever.

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Measuring Height and Weight

Diagnostic Skills

Demonstrate the skill

Provide for guided practice

Provide for independent practice

Verify student passing

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Diagnostic Skills:Measure Visual Acuity

  • Used to measure the ability to see

  • Snellen charts: used to measure distant vision

  • Ishihara method tests for color

  • Tonometer measures intraocular pressure

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Diagnostic Skills:Measure Visual Acuity

  • OD – right eye (oculus dexter)

  • OS – left eye (oculus sinister)

  • OU – both eyes (oculus uterque)

  • Myopia – nearsightedness, defect in distant vision

  • Hyperopia – farsightedness, defect in near vision

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


Measure Visual Acuity

Diagnostic Skills

Demonstrate the skill

Provide for guided practice

Provide for independent practice

Verify student passing

3.01 Understand Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services


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