Lecture 10 new developments in xml mathml namespaces rdf
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Lecture 10 New Developments in XML: MathML, Namespaces, RDF. CS 502: Computing Methods for Digital Libraries. Administration. Net Library: Comments, feedback, experience -- to John Saylor CDs for rebuilding laptop software: available in Upson 308 Change to schedule:

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CS 502: Computing Methods for Digital Libraries

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Lecture 10 new developments in xml mathml namespaces rdf

Lecture 10

New Developments in XML:

MathML, Namespaces, RDF

CS 502: Computing Methods for Digital Libraries


Administration

Administration

  • Net Library:

  • Comments, feedback, experience -- to John Saylor

  • CDs for rebuilding laptop software: available in Upson 308

  • Change to schedule:

  • Office hours -- Wednesday

  • Lecture on March 14

  • Mid-term examination:

  • Wednesday, March 8, 7:30 to 8:30


Mathml

MathML

  • Objectives:

  • Encode mathematical material for teaching and scientific communication at all levels

  • Encode both mathematical notation and mathematical meaning

  • Facilitate conversion to and from other math formats, both presentational and semantic. e.g., TeX

  • Be suitable for a wide range of output formats, including Braille

  • Provide for extensibility

  • Be human legible, and simple for software to generate and process

  • Intended for use with both HTML and XML


Presentation and content markup

Presentation and Content Markup

Example:a + b

Presentation:

<mrow>

<mi>a</mi>

<mo>+</mo>

<mi>b</mi>

</mrow>

Content:

<apply>

<plus/>

<ci>a</ci>

<ci>b</ci>

</apply>


Presentation and content markup1

Presentation and Content Markup

Example: (a + b)2

Presentation:

<msup>

<mfenced>

<mrow>

<mi>a</mi>

<mo>+</mo>

<mi>b</mi>

</mrow>

</mfenced>

<mn>2</mn>

</msup>

Content:

<apply>

<power/>

<apply>

<plus/>

<ci>a</ci>

<ci>b</ci>

</apply>

<cn>2</cn>

</apply>


Annotations

Annotations

t

dx

x

0

<apply>

<int/>

<bvar><ci>x</ci></bvar>

<lowlimit><cn>0</cn></lowlimit>

<uplimit><ci>t</ci></uplimit>

<apply>

<divide/>

<cn>1</cn>

<ci>x</ci>

</apply>

</apply>

Content


Annotations1

Annotations

t

dx

x

0

<mrow>

<msubsup>

<mo>&int;</mo>

<mn>0</mn>

<mi>t</mi>

</msubsup>

<mfrac>

<mrow>

<mo>&dd;</mo>

<mi>x</mi>

</mrow>

<mi>x</mi>

</mfrac>

</mrow>

Presentation


Annotations2

Annotations

<semantics>

Content encoding

<annotation-xml encoding="MathML-Presentation">

Presentation encoding

</annotation-xml>

</semantics>


Xml namespaces

XML Namespaces

  • Namespaces:

  • Allow those who publish XML to explicitly indicate where their information is coming from

  • Avoids any confusion regarding the information's origin


Using namespaces

Using Namespaces

  • Examples:

  • <bk:title>Cheaper by the Dozen</bk:title>

  • <isbn:number>1568491379</isbn:number>

  • The tag consists of two parts:

  • namespace (in red)

  • name within namespace (in blue)


Specifying namespaces

Specifying Namespaces

Example 1

<xhtml xmlns = "http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">

....

</xhtml>


Specifying namespaces1

Specifying Namespaces

Example 2

<?xml version="1.0"?>

<!-- both namespace prefixes are available throughout -->

<bk:book xmlns:bk = "http://loc.gov:books"

xmlns:isbn = "urn:ISBN:0-395-36341-6">

<bk:title>Cheaper by the Dozen</bk:title>

<isbn:number>1568491379</isbn:number>

</bk:book>


Resource descriptions as graphs

Resource Descriptions as Graphs

"Shakespeare is the author of the play Hamlet."

creator

Hamlet

Shakespeare

type

play


Cs 502 computing methods for digital libraries

RDF: Metadata Schemes

  • "Shakespeare is the author of the play Hamlet."

  • In the Dublin Core metadata scheme, this can be represented as:

  • ResourceProperty-typeValue

  • Hamlet ---> creator ---> Shakespeare

  • ---> type ---> play

  • A different metadata scheme, might use the term author in

  • place of creator, and the term type with a different meaning.


  • Use of namespace

    Use of Namespace

    "Shakespeare is the author of the play Hamlet."

    dc:creator

    Hamlet

    Shakespeare

    dc:type

    play


    Rdf metadata schemes

    RDF: Metadata Schemes

    • Define a namespace for the metadata scheme

    • Basic XML

    • <creator>Shakespeare</creator>

    • <type>play</type>

    • With dc namespace

    • <dc:creator>Shakespeare</dc:creator>

    • <dc:type>play</dc:type>


    Rdf identifying resources

    RDF: Identifying Resources

    • Suppose that Hamlet is referenced by the URL:

    • "http://hamlet.org/"

    • <rdf:description rdf:about = "http://hamlet.org/">

    • ..........

    • </rdf:description>


    Rdf full record

    RDF: Full Record

    • Full RDF record, with XML mark-up:

    • <rdf:rdf>

    • <rdf:description rdf:about = "http://hamlet.org/">

    • <dc:creator>Shakespeare</dc:creator>

    • <dc:type>play</dc:type>

    • </rdf:description>

    • </rdf:rdf>


    Rdf namespace information

    RDF: Namespace Information

    • Full RDF record, with Namespace Definitions:

  • <rdf xmlns = “http://www.w3.org/TR/WD-rdf-syntax#”

  • xmlns:dc = “http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.0/”>

    • <rdf:description rdf:about = "http://hamlet.org/">

    • <dc:creator>Shakespeare</dc:creator>

    • <dc:type>play</dc:type>

    • </rdf:description>

    • </rdf>


  • Complexity v acceptance

    Complexity v. Acceptance

    • Markup

    • SGML was slow to gain acceptance because it is complex

    • HTML and the web gained acceptance because they were simple

    • XML is gaining acceptance steadily for structural mark-up, but has a long way to go

    • Style sheets

    • DSSSL has not been accepted because of complexity

    • CSS and XSL are slowly gaining acceptance, but have a long way to go


    Complexity v acceptance1

    Complexity v. Acceptance

    • Mathematics:

    • MathML is complex but mathematics is complex. It may succeed.

    • Metadata markup:

    • XML is becoming the standard for metadata. It is simple and intuitive.

    • RDF adds functionality, but a lot more complexity.

    • Namespaces:

    • Namespaces are a simple concept, but the notation adds a lot of complexity


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