Prediction of the separation efficiency of a 10 mm hydrocyclone using light liquid phase particles
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Prediction of the Separation Efficiency of a 10 Mm Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles. S. Austin, J. Williams, S. Smith and G. D. Wesson. Department of Chemical Engineering FAMU-FSU College of Engineering Tallahassee, FL 32310. Presented at:

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Prediction of the separation efficiency of a 10 mm hydrocyclone using light liquid phase particles

Prediction of the Separation Efficiency of a 10 Mm Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

S. Austin, J. Williams, S. Smith and G. D. Wesson

Department of Chemical Engineering

FAMU-FSU College of Engineering

Tallahassee, FL 32310

Presented at:

8th Annual International Petroleum and Environmental Conference

Houston, TX

November 6-9, 2001


Presentation outline
Presentation Outline Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

  • Motivation

  • Hydrocyclone principles

  • Particle separation theory

  • Hydrocyclone performance measurements

  • Separation experiments

  • Results

  • Conclusions and future work

  • Acknowledgements


Motivation
Motivation Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

  • Oil production requires water treatment.

  • Required offshore constraint

    < 30 ppm of oil in water to environment

  • Interest in down-hole separation


Hydrocyclone operation principles
Hydrocyclone Operation Principles Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

  • Tangential feed entry

  • Creation of core vortex

  • High local accelerations

  • Complex internal flows

  • No moving parts


Liquid particle fluid interaction
Liquid Particle -Fluid Interaction Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

  • Liquid particles remain spherical

  • Particle diameter < 50 microns

  • Rep <0.1 , i.e. creeping flow

  • Incompressible fluids


Liquid particle fluid interaction1
Liquid Particle -Fluid Interaction Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

Stokes’ law


Particle motion

Terminal velocity Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

Separation is a function of:

Density difference

Particle size

Continuous phase viscosity

Cyclone diameter

Local accelerations in 10mm cyclone may approach 10,000 g

Particle Motion


Measuring the performance
Measuring the Performance Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

  • Many ways to measure hydrocyclone performance

    • Due to different applications

  • “Traditional” separation measurement:

QOCOfO(l)

QFCF fF(l)

QUCU fU(l)


Separation efficiency
Separation Efficiency Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

  • Efficiency based on total fraction of concentration reduction or:

  • Equivalent to “traditional” efficiency measurement


Separation theory
Separation Theory Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

  • Grade underflow purity coefficient-separation efficiency for each particle size

  • Integrating over sizes yields overall separation efficiency


Grade efficiency curve
Grade Efficiency Curve Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

  • Continuous function of particles sizes

  • Hydrocyclone performance is size dependent and GEC varies with particles size

  • Graphically represented as curve that is usually ‘S’ shaped

  • “Overall” separation efficiency is a result of the integration of the product of the GPC and the feed distribution


Grade efficiency curve1
Grade Efficiency Curve Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

Wesson & Petty 1994


Separation experiments

Separation Experiments Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles


Flow diagram
Flow Diagram Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles


10mm hydrocyclone
10mm Hydrocyclone Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

2.5 mm

2.5 mm

80 mm

10 mm

1 mm


Experimental flow loop
Experimental Flow Loop Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

hydrocyclone

Stirrer

Sample

Cylinders

tank

pump


Flow predictions
Flow Predictions Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles

  • Feed pressure varied from 60 - 160 psig

  • Flow rates determined using stopwatch

  • Linear regression

    Qf = f(Po, Pu)


Flow predictions1
Flow Predictions Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles


Flow rate predictions
Flow Rate Predictions Hydrocyclone Using Light Liquid Phase Particles


Experiment

Determine optimum conditions which will give the best separation efficiency

Compare concentration separation efficiency with traditional way of determining efficiency.

Experiment



Model dispersion

Soda Lime Borosilicate Glass glass bubbles and water separation efficiency:

r = 0.1 g/cm3

c = 1 cp (Cannon-Fenske viscometer)

lmean = 30 mm

Model Dispersion


Results
Results separation efficiency

Conc vs. oil droplet sizes at 60 psi pressure drop


Results1
Results separation efficiency

Conc vs. oil droplet sizes at 60 psi pressure drop


Results2
Results separation efficiency

Grade Purity Function vs. Diameter – 4.85 lpm


Results3
Results separation efficiency

Overall efficiency vs. Feed flow rate


Conclusions
Conclusions separation efficiency

  • Glass bubbles-water separation

    • Best overall efficiency for feed distribution occurs 4.8 lpm feed flow rate (DP=200 psi)

    • L50 = 10 mm



Model dispersion1

Vegetable oil dispersion in water: separation efficiency

r = 0.1 g/cm3 (pycnometer)

d = 50 cp (Cannon-Fenske viscometer)

c = 1 cp (Cannon-Fenske viscometer)

  30 dynes/cm (Pendant drop method)

Model Dispersion


Results4
Results separation efficiency

Conc vs. oil droplet sizes at 60 psi DP


Results5
Results separation efficiency

Conc. vs oil droplet sizes at 160 DP


Concentration g curves
Concentration G-curves separation efficiency

Grade Purity Coefficient vs. Oil droplet diameter at various flow rates

L/min

best GPC-curve

“Drop Breakup”


Results6
Results separation efficiency

The best “overall” efficiency?


Conclusions1
Conclusions separation efficiency

  • Oil-Water separation

    • Best overall efficiency for feed distribution occurs 3.0 lpm feed flow rate (DP=60 psi)

    • Best GPC curve occurs at 3.7 lpm feed flow rate (DP=100 psi)


Continued work
Continued Work separation efficiency

  • Investigate drop breakup

  • Investigate source of ‘fish hook”

  • Investigate use of back pressure to eliminate the air from the core vortex


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