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LEASE. Chapter 17: Leases . The lease contract Capitalization Evolution of lease accounting Economic consequences of lease capitalization. The Lease Contract is. A legal document conveying use of property for a fixed period of time in exchange for rent or other compensation

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chapter 17 leases

LEASE

Chapter 17: Leases
  • The lease contract
  • Capitalization
  • Evolution of lease accounting
  • Economic consequences of lease capitalization.
the lease contract is
The Lease Contract is
  • A legal document conveying use of property for a fixed period of time in exchange for rent or other compensation
  • A conveyance because the lessee acquires an interest in property for a fixed period of time
  • A contract because the lessor promises the lessee quiet enjoyment of the property during the lease term in exchange for the promise of periodic payments
legal form of a lease contract
Legal Form of a Lease Contract
  • An executory (unperformed) contract
  • A lessor (legal owner) transfers possession of a leased asset to a lessee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a series of rents
  • A lessee’s performance is executory because future rents are due one period at a time
purchase arrangement vs true lease
Purchase Arrangement vs. True Lease
  • Purchase arrangements include
    • outright cash sales
    • credit sales
    • installment sales,
    • secured credit sales
    • conditional sales
  • Title passes to the user of the property in all instances except leases and conditional sales
leases and conditional sales
Leases and Conditional Sales
  • Title passes in a conditional sale when final payment is made, but this does not necessarily occur with a lease
  • Leases in which the title passes at the end of the lease term or in which a bargain purchase option exists are virtually the same as conditional sales with respect to legal ownership
capitalization
Capitalization
  • Strong argument for capitalization can be made for leases that resemble conditional sales agreements
  • Capitalization of leases that are virtually conditional sales agreements ... consistent with the true legal nature of the transaction
lease capitalization
Lease Capitalization
  • Lessee’s viewpoint, a lease must be accounted for as either
    • a rental agreement or
    • a purchase equivalent with debt financing
  • Lessor’s viewpoint, the transaction must be treated as either
    • a rental agreement or
    • a sale equivalent with debt financing (if it is a sales-type lease) or a loan equivalent (if it is a financing-type lease)
accounting policy
Accounting Policy
  • The heart of the policy is classification of leases as either
    • operating or
    • capital leases
  • Arguments against lease capitalization
    • verifiability
    • use of present value discounting techniques introduced less reliable accounting numbers into the financial statements
capitalization for lessees
Capitalization for Lessees
  • Legal approach
  • Material equity
  • Transfer of the benefits and risks of ownership
lease accounting standards
Lease Accounting Standards
  • ARB 38
  • APB Opinion No. 5
  • APB Opinion No. 10
  • APB Opinion No. 31
  • SFAS No. 13 (as Amended Through SFAS No. 98)
lease accounting standards11
Lease Accounting Standards
  • APB Opinion No. 7
    • issued in 1966
    • first standard to address lessor accounting
  • APB Opinion No. 27
  • SFAS No. 13
    • lessee and lessor accounting achieved near symmetry
sale and leaseback
Sale and Leaseback
  • Occurs when the owner of an asset legally sells it and enters into a lease agreement to lease the asset back
  • Lessor (new legal owner) and lessee (original legal owner) both use the standard criteria for classifying such a lease as operating or capital
leveraged leases
Leveraged Leases
  • From a lessee’s viewpoint, a leveraged lease is not any different from other leases
  • From lessor’s viewpoint...possibly
    • is the same as a conventional financing-type lease with an additional debt transaction between the lessor and the third party
    • is to regard a leveraged lease as a unique type of lease warranting special rules applicable to its special circumstances
economic consequences
Economic Consequences
  • costs of complying with lease capitalization
  • more critical concern has been whether lease capitalization might provide disincentives for leasing itself
sfas no 13
SFAS No. 13
  • Survey and capital market research supports the position that the reporting of capital leases is useful and relevant.
  • However, a strong case can be made for capitalizing all leases extending beyond one year. This type of rigid uniformity would eliminate the attempts to circumvent SFAS No. 13
chapter 17 leases16

LEASE

Chapter 17: Leases
  • The lease contract
  • Capitalization
  • Evolution of lease accounting
  • Economic consequences of lease capitalization.
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