Chapter 5:  Formation of Stars and Planets
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Chapter 5: Formation of Stars and Planets (and more) Part 2 - the Solar System. EVERYTHING in the Solar System orbits the Sun !. What is EVERYTHING?. The planets …. … and Pluto, too. Sun and planets to scale. Kuiper Belt Objects - KBO. Minor/dwarf planets( --- Pluto ?).

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Chapter 5: Formation of Stars and Planets (and more)

Part 2 - the Solar System



What is EVERYTHING?

The planets ….




Kuiper Belt Objects - KBO

Minor/dwarf planets( --- Pluto ?)


Pluto (and other Dwarf Planets)

  • Much smaller than major planets

  • Icy, comet-like composition

  • Pluto’s main moon (Charon) is of similar size



Oort

Cloud

Left-overs

from

Solar System

Formation

Comets



Oort Cloud

KBO

Solar System


The Solar System consists of:

Sun

Planets/Dwarf Planets

Moons

Asteroids

KBOs

Comets

The Solar System divided into:

1. Terrestrial planets

Jovian (gas giants) planets

Asteroid Belt

KBO

Oort Cloud


Solar system generalities:

All planets orbit and rotate on their axis in the

same direction;

exceptions: Venus, Uranus

Venus rotates

opposite to its path around the Sun

(“retrograde”)

Uranus tilted

about 90O


Solar system generalities:

Small planets : high density

rich in iron and rock

close to the Sun

Large planets: low density (gaseous)

rich in hydrogen and ice

far from the Sun


Solar system generalities:

4. Swarms of smaller bodies: rocky asteroids

icy comets


  • The inner part of the protoplanetary disk is hotter than the outer part.

  • The inner disk has only materials that do not melt at high temperatures.

  • Refractory = do not melt at high temperature.

  • The outer disk has volatile materials like ices.

  • Volatile = can melt or evaporate at moderate temperatures.



The Formation of Planets

Why are there two major types of planets?

How did terrestrial planets form?

How did jovian planets form?

What ended the era of planet formation?


Inner parts of disk are hotter than outer parts.

Rock can be solid at much higher temperatures than ice.

Inside thefrost line:

Too hot for hydrogen compounds to form ices.

Outside thefrost line: Cold enough for ices to form.


Tiny solid particles stick to form – planetesimals.

Gravity draws planetesimals together to form planets.

This process of assembly is called planetesimalaccretion


PLANET FORMATION

JOVIAN PLANET FORMATION

2 models: core accretion

and

gravitational collapse (like stars)

IMPORTANT: Jupiter had to form first to provide

protection for the inner planets to form


Gas giants must form before the solar nebula dissipates

(< 10 million years)

Disks are seen around many young stars


CORE ACCRETION GAS CAPTURE

planetesimals

accrete into a

solid core

growing core

attracts gas

envelope

runaway gas accretion with a little solids

accretion ends

when no more gas

planet contracts

and cools


PLANET FORMATION

TERRESTRIAL FORMATION

IMPORTANT: Jupiter had to form first to provide

protection for the inner planets to form


CORE ACCRETION GAS CAPTURE

planetesimals

accrete into a

solid core

  • Many smaller objects collected into just a few large ones


What ended the era of planet formation?

A combination of photons and the solar wind —outflowing matter from the Sun—blew away the leftover gases

Magnetic fields in early solar wind helped reduce Sun’s rotation rate

Post planet formation

Where did asteroids and comets come from?

How do we explain “exceptions to the rules”?

How do we explain the existence of our Moon?

How old is the solar system?


Where did asteroids and comets come from?

  • Leftovers from the accretion process

  • Rocky asteroids inside frost line

  • Icy comets outside frost line


How do we explain “exceptions to the rules”?

Heavy Bombardment

Uranus’ odd tilt

Leftover planetesimals bombarded other objects in the late stages of solar system formation


Not really an exception but still interesting

What is the Origin of Earth’s Water

Water may have come to Earth by way of icy planetesimals


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