Force and Motion. Integrated Science Mrs. Zazzali. Lesson 1-Circuit of Inquiries . 1.1 The Hand Warmer , What is Friction? Friction - surface resistance to motion, as of a body sliding or rolling. . Inquiry 1.2 – Constructing and Interpreting a Graph. Inquiry 1.3 – Rolling Around.
1.1 The Hand Warmer, What is Friction?
Friction - surface resistance to motion, as of a body sliding or rolling.
Force – a push or pull on an object
Examples of Force, Balanced vs. Unbalanced Force.
Balanced – Force is equal in size and opposite in direction ex. Tug of War teams evenly matched, rope does not move
Unbalanced – Force is greater on 1 side, ex. Tug of War when one team pulls other team to the other side
Momentum – mass in motion and depends on 2 variables mass and velocity
Magnetic force - Magnets have a magnetic north pole and a magnetic south pole. If the same pole of two magnets are placed near each other they will push away (repel), while if different poles are placed near each other they will pull together (attract).
Born in Pisa, Italy 1564
Influential with his studies of Gravity, rate objects fall to the Earth
Discovered that Earth revolved around the sun which was very controversial at the time, people believed Earth was the center of the Universe
Shared his ideas from his notebook recordings, one of the first Scientists to maintain a notebook
Gravity -the force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass.
Mass- amount of matter in an object (doesn’t change-moon or anywhere else the same)
Weight- force of gravity on an object (changes based on the gravitational pull, on the moon you would weigh less)
Kilogram- unit of mass in the metric system
Newton(N)- unit of force in the metric system
Elastic Force- able to return to an original shape or size after being stretched, or compressed, the force of a rubber band or spring.
K-W-Learned (What did you Learn about Friction)
Pd.1: Couldn’t hold onto things, we wouldn’t be alive, rub/slide, couldn’t stop w/out it
Pd.2: Mass impacts friction, couldn’t do many things we do now, sliding all over with out it, surface resistance
Pd.3: Helps us hold pen/pencil, can’t live with out it, A force that holds things down, helps brake or stop things.
Pd.5: Creates heat, lets us live, slows objects down, with out we would be sliding all over the place
Pd.6: Slows things down, generates heat, with out it we couldn’t live a normal life, Diff. types of friction
Pd.7: Slows an object down, generates heat, we wouldn’t be alive with out it, more weight = more friction
Review Lessons 1-3:
Friction-Surface resistance to an object’s motion
Newton-measure of Force in the Metric system
Sliding friction-opposes the motion of objects over a surface
Static friction-when a force is applied to an object and it does not cause it to move, ex. Applying a small force to move a large box across the floor and the box does not move
Surface area-measure of the total surface of an object, ex. Block surface area calculated with length X width
Air resistance-opposing force air exerts on a falling object impacted by the speed and the cross-sectional area of the object. Ex. Increase the speed, Increase air resistance
Terminal velocity-the constant velocity reached by a falling object resulting from the interaction between gravity and air friction or drag
Velocity-the speed at which an object is traveling in a single direction, ex. Skydiver traveling down to earth
Magnet: object made of iron, nickel, and/or cobalt and has the ability to attract or repel magnetic materials.
Magnetic field: Space/area where magnetic forces are observed. If the field exists, it will deflect a compass needle.
Dependent Variable: Value is determined by the experiment or changes as a result of the independent variable.
Independent Variable: variable that the experimenter changes in the experiment.
Magnetic Compass: device that determines the presence and direction of a magnetic field.
***The following terms should be defined by you for homework.
Geomagnetic North: the point on the earth where a compass would lead to the Earth’s magnetic field
Geographic North: Geographically where on a map we find our North Pole
Potential Energy- stored energy that can be released, ex. Roller coaster at the top of a hill
Kinetic Energy- energy in motion, ex. Roller coaster riding on the track
Velocity/Speed- how fast something moves
Velocity Formula: V = D/T Velocity = Distance divided by Time
Kinetic Energy Formula: 1/2mv2 ½ mass times velocity squared
***Please see me if you need help using these formulas
What was the purpose of our Transportation Project?
Find Velocity and Kinetic Energy for various devices
Describe how devices work
Teach the class about our device
How was our rubric developed and how does it help us with our project?
As a class, we came up with ideas and percentages to weight 3 categories, Poster, Oral, and Group work.
What did you K-W-Learn about your Transportation device?
Velocity, Kinetic Energy, Average Weight, How it works, Who Invented it, etc.
What did you learn from the class?
Same as above
Describe the motion of our fan car.
Constant, steady when battery and floor did not interrupt it. Slow and steady.
Complete the Data table below for our Fan car.
Compare/Contrast the Motion of the Fan Car to our Mousetrap Car.
Fan car = slow & steady
Mousetrap = more acceleration & a definite stop
Calculate the Kinetic Energy for our Mousetrap Car if the mass of our car is .25 kilograms
KE = ½ mv2
½ Mass = .25 / 2 = .125 V2 = .2(.2) = .04
.125 X .04 = .005 joules
2nd problem V2 = .5(.5) = .25
.125 X .25 = .03125