Lessons Learned in Washington State:
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Lessons Learned in Washington State: Implementing and Sustaining Evidence-Based Juvenile Justice Programs. Minnesota Juvenile Justice Forum June 19, 2008 Elizabeth K. Drake Washington State Institute for Public Policy www.wsipp.wa.gov [email protected] 360.586.2767.

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Minnesota Juvenile Justice Forum June 19, 2008 Elizabeth K. Drake

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Minnesota juvenile justice forum june 19 2008 elizabeth k drake

Lessons Learned in Washington State: Implementing and Sustaining Evidence-Based Juvenile Justice Programs

Minnesota Juvenile Justice Forum

June 19, 2008

Elizabeth K. Drake

Washington State Institute for Public Policy

www.wsipp.wa.gov

[email protected]

360.586.2767


Washington state institute for public policy

Washington State Institute for Public Policy

  • Created in 1983 by the state Legislature

  • Mission: Carry out non-partisan research on projects assigned either by the legislature or the Institute’s Board of Directors.

    • 8 legislators

    • 4 higher education provosts or presidents

    • 4 state agency directors

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Minnesota juvenile justice forum june 19 2008 elizabeth k drake

Quality

Assurance

Costs &

Benefits

Lessons

Learned

Overview

Research

Presentation Outline

  • Discuss Washington State’s experience with evidence-based juvenile justice programs

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Minnesota juvenile justice forum june 19 2008 elizabeth k drake

Quality

Assurance

Costs &

Benefits

Lessons

Learned

Overview

Research

Juvenile Justice System in WA

  • Determinate sentencing since 1977

    • Current offense

    • Criminal history

  • Decentralized system

    • County - juvenile court, detention, probation

    • State - juvenile correctional institutions, parole; distributes state funds to counties (Juvenile Rehabilitation Administration, JRA)

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Minnesota juvenile justice forum june 19 2008 elizabeth k drake

Quality

Assurance

Costs &

Benefits

Lessons

Learned

Overview

Research

Evidence-Based Initiative

  • Intensive probation program in 1995.

    • Institute conducts outcome evaluation and results are not good.

  • Community Juvenile Accountability Act (CJAA) was passed in 1997.

    • Goal: Reduce crime, cost-effectively, by establishing “research-based” programs in the juvenile court.

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Minnesota juvenile justice forum june 19 2008 elizabeth k drake

Quality

Assurance

Costs &

Benefits

Lessons

Learned

Overview

Research

CJAA

  • A CJAA committee was established.

  • Institute examined literature to identify programs that reduce recidivism.

    • Meta-analysis

  • Four CJAA programs were selected.

    • Functional Family Therapy (FFT)

    • Aggression Replacement Training (ART)

    • Coordination of Services (COS)

    • Multi-Systemic Therapy (MST)

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Minnesota juvenile justice forum june 19 2008 elizabeth k drake

Quality

Assurance

Costs &

Benefits

Lessons

Learned

Overview

Research

Assessment

  • The Institute worked with Juvenile Court Administrators to develop the WA State Juvenile Court Assessment

  • Assessment

    • Measures risk and protective factors.

    • Classifies youth as low, moderate, or high risk for reoffense.

    • Screens youth for program eligibility.

  • Program implementation began in 1999.

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Minnesota juvenile justice forum june 19 2008 elizabeth k drake

Quality

Assurance

Costs &

Benefits

Lessons

Learned

Research

Overview

Two Types of Research

  • Meta-analysis

    • Combines the results of many studies.

    • Studies must meet a standard of rigor.

    • Results of meta-analysis produce an effect size.

  • Outcome evaluation

    • Valid comparison group.

    • Intent to treat (not just completers).

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Minnesota juvenile justice forum june 19 2008 elizabeth k drake

Quality

Assurance

Costs &

Benefits

Lessons

Learned

Research

Overview

35%

Program

(Competent

Therapists)

30%

32%

Control

25%

27%

27%

25%

Program

(Not Competent

Therapists)

20%

Recidivism Rate

19%

15%

17%

10%

5%

1%

3%

0%

FFT

ART

COS

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Minnesota juvenile justice forum june 19 2008 elizabeth k drake

Quality

Assurance

Costs &

Benefits

Lessons

Learned

Research

Overview

  • Experts

    • Statewide quality assurance steering committee

    • Statewide program experts

    • Regional consultants

  • Training

    • On-going consultation, feedback, and training

    • Assess therapists’ level of competent program delivery

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Minnesota juvenile justice forum june 19 2008 elizabeth k drake

Costs &

Benefits

Quality

Assurance

Lessons

Learned

Research

Overview

Evidence-Based Public Policy Options to Reduce Future Prison Construction (2006)

  • “Study options to stabilize future prison populations.”

  • “Study the net short-run and long-run fiscal savings to state and local governments of implementing…

    • evidence-based treatment human service and corrections programs and policies, including prevention and intervention programs”

  • “Project total fiscal impacts under alternative implementation scenarios.”

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Minnesota juvenile justice forum june 19 2008 elizabeth k drake

Costs &

Benefits

Quality

Assurance

Lessons

Learned

Research

Overview

Evidence-Based Programs for Juvenile Offenders: Selected Results

Expected Change In Crime

(# of EB Studies)

Benefits Minus Costs

(per-person, life cycle)

Juvenile Program

FFT-18.1% (7)$49,776

MDTFC (foster care)-17.9% (3)$88,953

ART-8.3% (4)$23,015

Restorative Justice (low risk) -8.0% (21)$8,702

MST -7.7% (10)$17,694

Intensive Probation (surveillance)0.0% (3)-$1,650

Scared Straight+6.1%(10)-$17,470

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Minnesota juvenile justice forum june 19 2008 elizabeth k drake

Costs &

Benefits

Quality

Assurance

Lessons

Learned

Background

Research

What Does This Mean?

  • Many juvenile justice options produce favorable long-run economic returns.

    • Reduce need for up to two prisons if an aggressive portfolio of evidence-based options were implemented.

  • In 2007, the Legislature expanded funding for evidence-based programs.

    • $26.2 million

    • One future prison eliminated from agenda.

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Minnesota juvenile justice forum june 19 2008 elizabeth k drake

Lessons

Learned

Quality

Assurance

Costs &

Benefits

Research

Overview

  • Research

    • Select programs scientifically shown to work.

    • Conduct a valid outcome evaluation.

  • Assessment

    • Develop an assessment to identify appropriate program for each youth.

  • Quality Assurance

    • Implement standards to ensure adherence to the model.

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Minnesota juvenile justice forum june 19 2008 elizabeth k drake

Lessons

Learned

Quality

Assurance

Costs &

Benefits

Research

Overview

  • Costs and Benefits

    • Determine if the investment produces positive returns to taxpayers.

  • People

    • Develop relationships with stakeholders.

    • People make decisions, not reports.

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Juvenile justice history in wa

Juvenile Justice History in WA

Intensive probation program funded.

Intensive probation outcomes are not good.

Determine if evidence-based programs exist that can be implemented in Washington State juvenile courts.

Move funding from intensive probation to evidence-based programs in juvenile courts: Aggression Replacement Training (ART) and Functional Family Therapy (FFT).

Preliminary evidence-based program outcomes are positive and emphasize competent delivery (Doc. No. 02-08-1201).

Develop adherence and outcome standards for evidence-based programs.

Cost-benefit analyses of prevention and intervention programs beyond juvenile offenders.

1995

1996

1997

1998

2002

2003

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Juvenile justice history in wa cont d

Juvenile Justice History in WA (cont’d)

Outcome evaluation of Washington State’s research-based programs for juvenile offenders. ART, FFT, & COS.

Benefits and Costs of Prevention and Early Intervention Programs for Youth - 6 outcomes of interest.

Reinvesting in Youth legislation: State reimburses counties for implementing evidence-based programs.

Evidence-Based Public Policy Options to Reduce Future Prison Construction, Criminal Justice Costs, and Crime Rates.

Expanded Funding for evidence-based programs: ART, FFT, MST, COS, MDTFC, FIT, Restorative justice for low risk offenders, and drug courts.

Working on increasing the number of youth served by evidence-based programs and tracking agency implementation of expansion dollars.

2004

2006

2007

Today

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Institute reports of interest

Institute Reports of Interest

Aos, S., Lieb, R., Mayfield, J., Miller, M., & Pennucci, A. (2004). Benefits and costs of prevention and early intervention programs for youth.

Aos, S., Miller, M. & Drake, E. (2006). Evidence-based public policy options to reduce future prison construction.

Barnoski, R. (1999). The Community Juvenile Accountability Act: Research-proven interventions for the juvenile court.

Barnoski, R. & Aos, S. (2004). Outcome evaluation of Washington State’s research-based programs for juvenile offenders.

Barnoski, R., Aos, S. & Lieb, R. (2003). Recommended quality control standards: Washington State research-based juvenile offender programs.

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