Biogeochemical cycles
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Biogeochemical Cycles. Biology EOCT Review. Essentials for Life. Like energy, matter flows through the environment. UNLIKE energy, which flows in one direction, matter cycles through the environment.

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Biogeochemical Cycles

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Biogeochemical Cycles

Biology EOCT Review

Essentials for Life

  • Like energy, matter flows through the environment. UNLIKE energy, which flows in one direction, matter cycles through the environment.

  • Matter is recycled in ecosystems through feeding relationships and life processes of organisms.

  • Essential elements: carbon (C ), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). When they cycle through organisms and environments it is called a biogeochemical cycle.

The Water Cycle

The Water (H2O) Cycle

  • Evaporation: water vapor enters the atmosphere as the sun heats bodies of water on the Earth’s surface

  • Transpiration: water evaporations from the leaves of plants through the stomata

  • Condensation: water vapor in the air and changes into a liquid

  • Precipitation: water that falls back to the Earth in the form of rain, hail, snow, or sleet

The Carbon Cycle

The Carbon Cycle

  • Organisms release carbon dioxide into the air as a waste product of cellular respiration.

  • Plants use carbon dioxide from the air in photosynthesis.

  • Coal and oil are fossil fuels formed from the remains of plants and other organisms. The burning of these fossil fuels releases carbon that was stored in the original organisms.

  • Carbon stored in the tissues of dead organisms is returned to the environment by decomposition.

The Nitrogen Cycle

The Nitrogen Cycle

  • Except for bacteria, living things cannot use N2 directly. Bacteria take nitrogen from the air and combine it with hydrogen to form ammonia (NH3)- nitrogen fixation.

  • Other bacteria transform ammonia into nitrates and nitrites- nitrification.

  • Denitrification is when bacteria convert the nitrates and ammonium ions in the soil back into nitrogen gas.

The Phosphorus Cycle

The Phosphorus Cycle

  • Only biochemical cycle that does not cycle through the atmosphere.

  • Phosphorus cycle is very slow.

  • Phosphorus is found in water, soil, and rocks.

  • Geological processes (hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes) release phosphorus from rocks and carry it from ocean sediment to land.

  • Plants absorb phosphorus.

  • Herbivores consume plants.

  • Phosphorus from decaying plants or animals returns to the earth.

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