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Building Virtual Museum Exhibitions. ARCO Project Partners. The University of Sussex (UK) The Sussex Archaeological Society (UK) The Poznan University of Economics (Poland) Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique (France) Giunti Gruppo Editoriale (Italy) University of Bath (UK)

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Building virtual museum exhibitions

Building Virtual Museum Exhibitions

Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


Arco project partners

ARCO Project Partners

The University of Sussex (UK)

The Sussex Archaeological Society (UK)

The Poznan University of Economics (Poland)

Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique (France)

Giunti Gruppo Editoriale (Italy)

University of Bath (UK)

Victoria and Albert Museum (UK)

Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


Arco team @ museum association conference brighton

ARCO-Team @ Museum Association Conference, Brighton

ARCO team on Stand 70

Martin White (UoS)—ARCO Project Manager

Krzysztof Walczak (PUE)—Database and Content Management

Manjula Patel (UKOLN)—Heritage Metadata

Patrick Sayd (CEA-LIST)—Digitisation

Rafal Wojciechowski (PUE, UoS)—Virtual and Augmented Reality

Miroslaw Stawniak (PUE)—Database and Content Management

John Manley (Sussex Past)—Small Museum Perspective

James Stevenson (VAM)—Large Museum Perspective

Fabrizio Giorgini (GIUNTI)—Business Models

Nicholaos Mourkoussis (UoS)—Metadata and XML Schemas

Joe Darcy (UoS)—3D Modelling of Museum Artefacts

Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


Presentation outline
Presentation Outline

  • ARCO Project Introduction – Martin White (UoS)

    • Tools for building virtual museum exhibitions

  • ARCO Technology Overview – Manjula Patel (UKOLN)

    • Creating and Manipulating 3D Models

    • Managing Cultural Object Database

    • Presentation of Cultural Objects using Virtual and Augmented Reality

  • Benefits for Small Museums – John Manley (SussexPast)

  • Benefits for Large Museums – James Stevenson (VAM)

Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


Arco background
ARCO Background

  • ARCO started in October 2001 as a three year RTD project

    • 1 year left to run, on schedule to finish September 2004

  • Seven partners including two museum pilot sites from 4 European countries

    • United Kingdom, France, Poland, Italy

  • Co-funded by the EC under the 5FP (IST)

    • Total investment is 2.8M Euro. 2.0M Euro from the EC

Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


Arco status
ARCO Status

  • Progress so far:

    • 4 prototype systems and components completed, various configurations demonstrated at:

      • COMDEX Fall 2002, Las Vegas

      • EVA 2003 Florence and London

      • Example 4th prototype components are exhibiting on stand 70

      • Two Museum User Trials, third in October at Sussex Past

    • Large dissemination activity:

      • Vision, Video and Graphics, UK

      • Visualisation, Imaging and Image Processing, Spain

      • Dublin Core, USA

  • Immediate Future Developments:

    • Final 12 months of project for more detailed system integration, assessment and evaluation, dissemination activities

    • Technology Implementation Plan

Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


Arco technology overview
ARCO Technology Overview

  • ARCO Project goals

  • Prototype systems and components

  • Digitisation of artefacts

  • 3D modelling and refinement

  • Storing and managing digitised objects

  • ARCO data model

  • Metadata in ARCO

  • Visualisation of digitised artefacts

  • Manjula Patel (UKOLN, University of Bath)

  • Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Goals of the arco project
    Goals of the ARCO Project

    • Develop innovative technology and expertise to help museums Create, Manipulate, Manage and Presentcultural objects in virtual exhibitions both within museums and over the Web

    • Why?

      • To allow museums to have an online (3D) presence

      • To enable interaction with digital representations of collections

    • How? By building a set of tools and processes from digitisation to visualisation:

      • Digital capture of artefacts, 3D modelling and refinement, Database and content management, Visualisation in virtual or augmented reality environments

      • Interoperability i.e. an Open Architecture

        • XML Data Exchange between tools and other systems

        • Internet, Web, graphics and metadata standards

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Arco prototype systems and components
    ARCO Prototype Systems and Components

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Create digitise artefacts with the object modeller
    Create: Digitise Artefacts with the Object Modeller

    • Method of modelling depends on features of the objects

      • Objects with simple geometryare modelled with modified 3ds max or Maya

    • For complex models we use a custom built stereo digital camera system:

      • Object geometry and textures are extracted from sequences of stereo pictures and merged to produce a 3D textured model

      • Portable in order to gain access to fragile artefacts

      • Ease of use for museum staff who are not experts in 3D measurement

      • Result should be an accurate 3D model of the artefact in terms of shape, texture and resolution

      • Automated stereo reconstruction as far as possible

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Manipulate 3d modelling and refinement
    Manipulate: 3D Modelling and Refinement

    • A tool for interactive model refinement and rendering

    • Creation of simple models and refinement of digitised models

      • smoothing the object geometry

      • reducing polygon count for Internet based rendering

      • re-applying lighting

      • repairing missing parts

    • Database connectivity

      • search and browse objects

      • import and export models

      • (including models generated by

      • other methods,

      • e.g. Mechanical scanning,

      • Laser scanning)

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Media objects from creation manipulation stages
    Media Objects fromCreation & Manipulation Stages

    • Sample media objects representing cultural objects in the database:

      • Images from the photogrammetry process

      • VRML models exported from model refinement

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Manage content management application
    Manage: Content Management Application

    • All ARCO data is stored in a database for consistency

    • Museums do not manage the database directly, but through a Content Management Application (ACMA)

    • ACMA provides several managers for ease of data manipulation, e.g.

      • Cultural objects

      • X-VRML templates

      • Virtual exhibitions

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Arco data model
    ARCO Data Model

    Cultural Object: descriptive curatorial metadata, surrogate for the physical artefact

    Acquired Object: digital representation of the physical artefact

    Refined Object: acquired (or refined) object which has been modified

    Media Object: individual object which makes up a digital representation (3D model, texture maps, description etc.)

    Cultural Object

    <<subclass>>

    <<subclass>>

    Acquired Object

    Refined Object

    <<refines>>

    <<refines>>

    +contains

    +contains

    +belongs to

    +belongs to

    Media Object

    +includes

    +is included

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Interoperability metadata for digital artefacts
    Interoperability: Metadata for Digital Artefacts

    • AMS –ARCO Metadata Schema, is a vocabulary for describing processes from digitisation to visualisation:

      • Resource discovery metadata (DCMES)

      • Descriptive curatorial metadata (mda SPECTRUM)

      • Technical metadata (preservation)

      • Themed metadata (intelligence, effort report)

      • ARCO specific elements

    • Interoperability

      • Data exchange between ARCO components

      • Cross domain and compatibility with museum best practice

    • Implemented with XML Schemas

    AMS Metadata Editor

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Presentation augmented reality interfaces
    Presentation: Augmented Reality Interfaces

    • Visualisation of ARCO media objects from the database

      • VRML models, metadata, images, virtual exhibitions

    • Three visualisation interfaces, same database contents

      • Remote Web Interface (search, browse)

      • Local Museum touch-screen (search, browse)

      • Local Augmented Reality environment (interact)

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Virtual museum exhibitions and galleries
    Virtual Museum Exhibitions and Galleries

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Benefits for Small MuseumsSussex Archaeology SocietySix regional museums in Sussexwith some 500,000 objectsJohn Manley (Sussex Past)

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Small museum attributes
    Small Museum Attributes

    • Some attributes of small museums…

      • They are in the majority

      • Often no dedicated ICT staff

      • Very often no professional photographic skills

      • They are not well-funded

      • But they are cherished, rooted in their localities, and aspire to do their best

      • They strive to achieve national standards

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Incarcerating objects
    Incarcerating Objects

    • The small museum as a prison …

      • Objects in them once had real lives and, for example, were meant to be handled, or worn, or drunk from, or contained something, or displayed on walls etc, often in the immediate locality

      • We remove them from those local contexts and then lock them in glass display cases

      • We can no longer explore their physicality in the round

      • And then the museum curator tells us what’s important about the object

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Liberating objects
    Liberating Objects

    • ARCO system as liberator …

      • ARCO can display, remotely or in-gallery, objects in the round

      • Can link objects with other objects and local places where they were found

      • Offers different visual perspectives of an object which can provoke novel opinions from the viewer, avoiding reliance on the curator

      • Enhances the sensual experience of the physicality of real objects

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Arco benefits for small museums
    ARCO Benefits for Small Museums

    • ARCO and small museums…

      • ARCO provides interactivity, and intelligent, non-passive artefacts

      • Liberates them from the glass case and curators’ labels

      • Decreases the psychological distance between object and viewer

      • Moves a step closer to allowing objects to be experienced as real things, once used by local people in their own localities

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Benefits for Large Museums

    Victoria and Albert MuseumA large national museum

    with some 4 million objects

    James Stevenson (VAM)

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Object base
    Object base

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Why we make images
    Why we make images

    • Publications

    • Catalogues

    • Collections management

    • Web site

    • Education

      • In the museum

      • On the web

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Education
    Education

    • DCMS targets and objectives

    • All funding bodies have similar targets

    • Improve access

    • Social inclusion

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    How do you describe an object
    How do you describe an object?

    • Words, text

    • Objects are 3D

    • They have a front and back

    • Top and bottom

    • They have mass and volume

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Photographer: Pip Barnard

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Photographer: Pip Barnard

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Photographer: Pip Barnard

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    How we are doing this
    How we are doing this?

    • Quick time movies

    • Large volume of content on the web site

    • Panoramas of galleries

    • Virtual spaces

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    What 3d models can do
    What 3D models can do

    • Add new ways of seeing

    • Give a greater degree of spatial awareness

    • Allow comparison of volume and mass

    • Be placed in virtual spaces

    • Help create the virtual museum

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Issues
    Issues

    • Difficult to achieve

    • Expensive

    • Complex

    • New set of skills

    • Studio or workshop restricted

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Tools
    Tools

    • Easy to use

    • Very simple software

    • Content management

    • Link to museums collections management

    • Simple model refinement

    • Simple insertion into web pages and virtual galleries

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


    Museum user roles
    Museum User Roles

    • Create test situations

    • Access to museum content

    • Test developments by technical partners

    • Evaluate results

    • Encourage use by other museums

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003



    Conclusions
    Conclusions

    • ARCO is developing an open architecture that integratesstate-of-the-art with ARCO specific technologies to enable museums to build virtual exhibitions

      • Digitisation and modelling of 3D museum artefacts (OM)

      • Refinement and creation of the 3D virtual museum artefacts (MR)

      • Object relational database and content management (ACMA)

      • Visualisation of museum exhibits in virtual environments (ARIF)

      • Integrated through XML technologies (X-VRML, AMS, XDE)

    • ARCO tools are end user driven through museum pilot sites being closely integrated into the design process

    • Visit us at the ARCO website:

      • http://www.arco-web.org/

      • Stand 70

    Museum Association Conference – Brighton – 6-7th October 2003


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