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TECHNOLOGY GUIDE ONE. Computer Hardware. TECHNOLOGY GUIDE OUTLINE. TG1.1 Introduction TG1.2 Strategic Hardware Issues TG1.3 Computer Hierarchy TG1.4 Input and Output Technologies TG1.5 The Central Processing Unit. LEARNING OBJECTIVES.

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Technology guide one


Computer Hardware

Technology guide outline


TG1.1 Introduction

TG1.2 Strategic Hardware Issues

TG1.3 Computer Hierarchy

TG1.4 Input and Output Technologies

TG1.5 The Central Processing Unit

Learning objectives


  • Identify the major hardware components of a computer system.

  • Discuss the strategic issues that link hardware design to business strategy.

  • Describe the hierarchy of computers according to power and their respective roles.

  • Differentiate the various types of input and output technologies and their uses.

Learning objectives continued


  • Describe the design and functioning of the central processing unit.

  • Discuss the relationships between microprocessor component designs and performance.

  • Describe the main types of primary and secondary storage.

Hardware consists of

Hardware consists of:

  • Central processing unit (CPU)

  • Primary storage

  • Secondary storage

  • Input technologies

  • Output technologies

  • Communication technologies

Tg1 2 strategic hardware issues

TG1.2 Strategic Hardware Issues

  • How do organizations keep up with the rapid price and performance advancements in hardware?

  • How often should an organization upgrade its computers and storage systems?

  • Will upgrades increase personal and organizational productivity?

  • How can organizations measure such increase?

  • How should organizations determine the need for new hardware infrastructures?

  • How do organizations manage employees who can “work from anywhere?”

Tg1 3 computer hierarchy

TG1.3 Computer Hierarchy

  • Supercomputers

  • Mainframe Computers

  • Midrange Computers

  • Microcomputers

Tg1 4 input and output technologies

TG1.4 Input and Output Technologies

Input technologies

Human data-entry

Source-data automation

Various human input devices

Various Human Input Devices

  • Trackball

  • Pointing Stick

  • Digital Pen

  • Web Camera

  • Wii

  • Bluetooth Laser Virtual Keyboard

  • The Maltron Keyboard

Multimedia technology

Multimedia Technology

  • Multimedia technology

  • Merges capabilities

Tg1 5 the central processing unit

TG1.5 The Central Processing Unit

Central processing unit (CPU)


  • Control unit

  • Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU)

  • Registers

Computer memory

Computer Memory

Two basic categories of computer memory:

  • Primary Storage

  • Secondary Storage

Memory capacity

Memory Capacity

  • Bit

  • Byte

Hierarchy of memory capacity

Hierarchy of Memory Capacity

  • Kilobyte

  • Megabyte

  • Gigabyte

  • Terabyte

  • Petabyte

  • Exabyte

  • Zettabyte

Main types of primary storage

Main Types of Primary Storage

  • Registers

  • Random access memory (RAM)

  • Cache memory

  • Read-only memory (ROM)

Secondary storage

Secondary Storage

Secondary Storage

  • Magnetic tape (sequential access)

  • Magnetic disks (direct access)

  • Optical storage devices

  • Flash Memory devices

Optical storage devices

Optical Storage Devices

Optical storage devices

  • Compact Disk, Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM)

  • Digital Video Disk (DVD)

Flash memory devices

Flash Memory Devices

Flash memory

Flash memory devices

Thumb drive

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