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PROCARYOTİC &EUCARYOTİC CELLS. Prof. Dr. Gönül KANIGÜR. Microorganisms can be divided into 2 groups :. CELLS. The microscopic study of cells reveals 2 types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Two Main Classes of Cells • Prokaryotic ( Bacteria and Archaea )

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Procaryot c eucaryot c cells

PROCARYOTİC &EUCARYOTİC CELLS

Prof. Dr. Gönül KANIGÜR



Cells
CELLS

  • The microscopic study of cells reveals 2 types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic.


  • Two Main Classes of Cells

  • • Prokaryotic (BacteriaandArchaea)

  • – Pro = “Before”; Karyon = “Kernel”

  • – No nucleus, DNA coiled up inside cell

  • • Eukaryotic (Everything else)

  • – Eu = “True”

  • – DNA inside membraneboundorganelle inside

  • cell, thenucleus


Prokaryotic cells are relatively simple
Prokaryotic Cells are relatively simple

  • 1. Bacteria are prokaryotic cells

  • 2. 1-10 um in diameter, just visible with light microscopes.

  • 3. Metabolically diverse.

  • 4. No True Nucleus


Morphology of prokaryotic cells
MORPHOLOGY OF PROKARYOTIC CELLS

  • Prokaryotes exhibit a variety of shapes

    • Most common

      • Coccus

        • Spherical

      • Bacillus

        • Rod or cylinder shaped


Cellular Structure

  • A typical bacterial (procaryotic) cell has the following basic structures :

    (1) Cell Wall,

    (2) Cell Membrane,

    (3) Ribosomes,

    (4) Nuclear Region


Cell wall
CELL WALL

  • Bacterial cell wall

    • Rigid structure

    • Surrounds cytoplasmic membrane

    • Determines shape of bacteria

    • Holds cell together

    • Prevents cell from bursting

    • Unique chemical structure

      • Distinguishes Gram positive from Gram-negative


Cytoplasmic membrane
Cytoplasmic membrane

  • A.Structure

  • -A phospholipid bilayer with proteins

  • -contains carbonhydrates

  • -contains sterols

  • B-Function

  • -transport:simple diffusion,facilitated diffusion,osmosis and active transport

  • -Endocytosis:phagocytosis and pinpcytosis


Cellular Structure

(3) Ribosomes

  • Small particles composed of protein and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

  • A single cell may have as many as 10,000 ribosomes.

  • Part of the translation apparatus, synthesis of cell proteins take place upon these structures.


Internal structure
INTERNAL STRUCTURE

  • Ribosome

    • Involved in protein synthesis

    • Composed of large and small subunits

      • Units made of protein 40% and ribosomal RNA 60%

    • Prokaryotic ribosomal subunits

      • Large = 30S

      • Small = 50S

    • Small than eukaryotic ribosomes

      • Difference often used as target for antimicrobials


Cellular Structure

(4) Nuclear Region

  • Nuclear region is primitive in procaryotic cell, i.e. bacteria.

  • Procaryotic cells DO NOT possess a true nucleus.

  • The functions of the nucleus are carried out by a single long strand of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

  • The nuclear region where the DNA is present is sometimes known as a nucleoid, NOT a nucleus.


  • Bacterial chromosome is not directly intereact with the proteins such as histons

  • DNA contents range from about 0.6 million to five milion bp.5000 proteins are coded from the chromosomal DNA

  • Bacteria may also contain plasmids,double stranded DNA molecules.they are not essential for growth and reproduction.



Movement of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.

Many bacteria are motile, able to move independently due to a special structure known as Flagellum (plural : Flagella)


Rigid tubular structure made of of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.pilin protein

Found only in Gram negative cells

Functions

Sexual pili—joins bacterial cells for DNA transfer (conjugation)

Common pili—adhesion

PILI


Eucaryotic cells

EUCARYOTIC CELLS of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.


I organisms and general properties
I. Organisms and general properties of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.

  • A. Organisms

    • 1. Microorganisms

      • Fungi

      • Protozoa

      • Algae

    • 2. Other

      • Higher plants

      • Animals


I organisms and general properties cont
I. Organisms and general properties, cont. of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.

  • B. General properties

    • More complex than procaryotes

    • Larger than procaryotes

    • Have a true nucleus

    • Have membrane-bound organelles


Iii the cell wall and glycocalyx
III. The cell wall and glycocalyx of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.

  • A. Cell wall

    • Rigid structure

    • Found on plant cells

    • Not made of peptidoglycan, but of long polysaccharide, e.g., cellulose

  • B. Glycocalyx A carbohydrate-containing structure on the surface of a cell.

    • May strengthen membrane of animal cells.

    • Serves as an adhesin, i.e., holds adjacent cells together


Eukaryotic cells components
Eukaryotic Cells Components of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.

Cell Wall

  • contains cellulose

  • support and protection

    Cell membrane / Plasma membrane

  • Phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins

  • boundary layer and transport

    Nucleus

  • nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, chromatin, nucleoli

  • storage and synthesis of genetic material.

    Nucleolus

  • Ribosome formation


Iv the cytoplasmic membrane
IV. The cytoplasmic membrane of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.

  • A. Structure

    • A phospholipid bilayer with proteins

    • Contains carbohydrates

    • Contains sterols

  • B. Function

    • Transport: simple diffusion; facilitated diffusion; osmosis; and active transport

    • Endocytosis: phagocytosis; and pinocytosis


Vi organelles
VI. Organelles of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.

  • Organelle A membrane-enclosed structure.

  • A. Nucleus

    • Has a double membrane with pores

    • Contains nucleoli where ribosomal RNA is synthesized

    • Contains chromatin: DNA + histones (basic proteins)

    • Chromosomes divide by mitosis.


  • İts diameter is aprox. 5um of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.

  • İt contains genetic material of the cell.

  • The Dna content is l.5 x10 – 7 to 5xl0 -9 bp

  • 30.000 protein are coded.

  • The nucleus is the site of DNA replication and RNA synthesis.


V cytoplasm
V. Cytoplasm of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.

  • The substance outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane

  • Similar in composition to that of procaryotes, but has a cytoskeleton that provides shape, support, and transport within cell

  • Cytoskeleton consists of:

    • Microfilaments

    • Intermediate filaments

    • Microtubules


Vi organelles cont
VI. Organelles, cont. of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.

  • B. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

    • Membrane network from nucleus to plasma membrane

    • Rough ER

      • Has ribosomes attached

      • Site of protein synthesis

    • Smooth ER

      • No ribosomes attached

      • Site of lipid synthesis


Vi organelles cont1
VI. Organelles, cont. of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.

  • C. Golgi apparatus

    • Stacks of membranes in cytoplasm

    • Receives proteins & lipids from ER

    • Ends pinch off forming secretory vesicles

    • Transports proteins & lipids within cell


D ribosomes
D. Ribosomes of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.

  • The site of protein synthesis

  • In cytoplasm: 80S variety consisting of 60S & 40S subunits

  • In mitochondria:70S variety consisting of 50S & 30S subunits


G lysosomes
G. Lysosomes of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.

  • Contains hydrolytic enzymes

  • Especially important in phagocytes


Organelles cont
. of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.Organelles, cont.

  • H. Vacuoles - membrane bound cavities

    • Diverse functions:

      • Store proteins, sugars, etc.

      • Store metabolic waste

      • Store water (plant cells)


Organelles cont1
Organelles of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics., cont.

  • E. Mitochondria

    • The site of respiration

    • Has 2 membranes:

      • Outer one has sterols

      • Inner one has no sterols,

      • Has DS circular DNA

    • Has 70S ribosomes

    • Replicates autonomously


Vi organelles cont2
VI. Organelles, cont. of the bacterial cell for ex.drug rezistance .some bacteria are rezistance to some antibiotics.

  • F. Chloroplasts

    • The site of photosynthesis

    • In algae and other plant cells

    • Contain 70S ribosomes

    • Contain DS DNA

    • Replicate autonomously



I centrioles
I. Centrioles mitochondria,chloroplast) is now generally accepted

  • Near nucleus

  • Functions: cell division, and formation of cilia and flagella


Ii structures external to the cell wall
II. Structures external to the cell wall mitochondria,chloroplast) is now generally accepted

  • A. Flagella

    • Surrounded by the cytoplasmic membrane.

    • Contains microtubules in a 2 + (2 x 9) arrangement

    • Function: motility

    • Found on some protozoa and algae

    • Only a few per cell


Vii comparisons

EUCARYOTE mitochondria,chloroplast) is now generally accepted

Larger

Simple wall structure

Sterols in membrane

2 + (9x2) flagella

True nucleus

Histones

PROCARYOTE

Smaller

Peptidoglycan wall

No sterols in memb.

Flagellin in helix

No nucleus

No histones

VII. Comparisons


Vii comparisons cont

EUCARYOTES mitochondria,chloroplast) is now generally accepted

Several chromosomes

Membrane-bound organelles

80S ribosomes

PROCARYOTES

One chromosome

No membrane-bound organelles

70S ribosomes

VII. Comparisons, cont.


Vii comparisons cont1

PROCARYOTES mitochondria,chloroplast) is now generally accepted

1 chromosome

No membrane-bound organelles

70S ribosomes

Replicates autonomously

MITOCHONDRIA

Multiple copies

no membrane-bound organelles

70S ribosomes

Replicates autonomously

VII. Comparisons, cont.


Vii comparisons cont2

PROCARYOTES mitochondria,chloroplast) is now generally accepted

About 1- 8 m

Peptidoglycan wall

No sterols in membrane

No nucleus

No histones

MITOCHONDRIA

About 1 m

No wall

No sterols in inner membrane

No nucleus

No histones

VII. Comparisons, cont.


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