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Job Analysis and Job Design. Chapter 4. Chapter Overview. Basic Terminology Job Analysis Job Design Summary of Learning Objectives. 4- 3. Basic Terminology.

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chapter overview
Chapter Overview
  • Basic Terminology
  • Job Analysis
  • Job Design
  • Summary of Learning Objectives

4-3

basic terminology
Basic Terminology
  • Micromotions – Simplest unit of work; involves very elementary movement, such as reaching, grasping, positioning, or releasing an object
  • Elements – An aggregation of two or more micromotions; usually thought of as a complete entity, such as picking up or transporting an object
  • Tasks – Consists of one or more elements; one of the distinct activities that constitute logical and necessary steps in the performance of work by an employee
    • A task is performed whenever human effort, physical or mental, is exerted for a specific purpose

4-4

basic terminology1
Basic Terminology
  • Duties – One or more tasks performed in carrying out a job responsibility
  • Responsibilities – Obligations to perform certain tasks and assume certain duties
  • Positions – Collection of tasks and responsibilities constituting the total work assignment of a single employee
  • Jobs – Group of positions that are identical with respect to their major or significant tasks and responsibilities and sufficiently alike to justify their being covered by a single analysis
    • One or many persons may be employed in the same job
  • Occupations – A grouping of similar jobs or job classes

4-5

job analysis
Job Analysis
  • Process of determining and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job
    • Involves determining the tasks that comprise the job and the skills, knowledge, abilities, and responsibilities required of the holder for successful job performance
    • End product of a job analysis is a written description of actual requirements of job
    • When performing a job analysis, the job and its requirements (as opposed to characteristics of person currently holding the job) are studied
  • It is the beginning point of many human resource functions
    • Specifically, data obtained from job analysis form the basis for a variety of human resource activities

4-7

job analysis influencing human resource activities
Job Analysis Influencing Human Resource Activities
  • Job definition – Job analysis results in a description of duties and responsibilities of job
  • Job redesign – Job analysis often indicates when a job needs to be redesigned
  • Recruitment – Process of seeking and attracting a pool of people from which qualified candidates for job vacancies can be chosen
    • Job analysis not only identifies job requirements but also outlines skills needed to perform job
  • Selection and placement – Process of choosing from those available the individuals who are most likely to perform successfully in a job
    • Job analysis determines importance of different skills and abilities

4-8

job analysis influencing human resource activities1
Job Analysis Influencing Human Resource Activities
  • Orientation – Introduction of new employees to the organization, work unit, and job
    • Effective job orientation cannot be accomplished without clear understanding of job requirements
  • Training – Learning process that involves acquisition of skills, concepts, rules, or attitudes to increase employee performance
    • Job analysis helps in determining training requirements, establishing training objectives, and helps determine the reason of problem occurrence
  • Career counseling – Job analysis provides clarity on variety of jobs in the organization and clarifies exact job requirements

4-9

job analysis influencing human resource activities2
Job Analysis Influencing Human Resource Activities
  • Employee safety – Often uncovers unsafe practices and/or environmental conditions associated with a job
  • Performance appraisal – The objective of performance appraisal is to evaluate an individual employee’s performance on a job
    • Job analysis helps in understanding exactly what an employee is supposed to do
  • Compensation – Job analysis helps ensure that employees receive fair compensation for their jobs
    • Once worth of a job has been established relative to other jobs, the employer can determine an equitable wage or salary schedule

4-10

products of job analysis
Products of Job Analysis
  • Job description – Written synopsis of nature and requirements of a job
    • Concentrates on describing the job as it is currently being performed
    • Explains, in written form, what the job is called, what it requires to be done, where it is to be done, and how it is to be done
  • Job specification – Description of competency, educational, and experience qualifications the incumbent must possess to perform the job
    • Knowledge – Identifiable factual information necessary to perform job
    • Skills – Specific proficiencies necessary for performing tasks that make up the job
    • Abilities – General and enduring capabilities for doing the job
    • Other characteristics – Include any other pertinent characteristics not covered under knowledge, skills, and abilities

4-12

job description
Job Description
  • A potential problem with all job descriptions is that they may become outdated
    • Often, it is not periodically updated to reflect any changes that have occurred in the job
  • Jobholder and his or her supervisor should review the most current job description annually and determine whether description needs updating
    • If updating is required, jobholder should play a central role in revising it
  • In the initial development of a job description, jobholder should be involved

4-14

job analysis methods observation
Job Analysis Methods – Observation
  • Relatively simple and straightforward method of analyzing jobs; can be used independently or in conjunction with other methods
    • Motion study (methods study)
      • Determining motions and movements necessary for performing a task or job and designing most efficient methods for putting them together
    • Time study
      • Determines elements of work required to perform job, order in which those elements occur, and time required to perform them effectively
    • Work sampling
      • Based on taking statistical samples of job actions throughout the workday and then drawing inferences about requirements and demands of the job

4-15

drawbacks of the observation method
Drawbacks of the Observation Method
  • Observer must be carefully trained to know what to look for and what to record
    • Helpful to use a form with standard categories of information to be filled in as job is observed to ensure basic information is not omitted
  • Its application is somewhat limited to jobs involving short and repetitive cycles
    • Complicated jobs and jobs that do not have repetitive cycles require such lengthy observation periods that it becomes impractical
  • Direct observation, can be used to get a feel for a particular job and then combined with other methods to thoroughly analyze

4-16

job analysis methods interviews
Job Analysis Methods – Interviews
  • Requires that person conducting job analysis meet with and interview jobholder
    • Unstructured interviews – Have no definite checklist or preplanned format; format develops as interview unfolds
    • Structured interview – Follows a predesigned format
      • Ensures that all pertinent aspects of job are covered
      • Easier to compare information obtained from different people holding the same job
  • Major drawback
    • Can be extremely time-consuming; compounded when several people are interviewed about the same job

4-17

job analysis methods questionnaires
Job Analysis Methods – Questionnaires
  • Typically three to five pages long and contain both objective and open-ended questions
    • For existing jobs – Incumbent completes questionnaire, has it checked by immediate manager, and returns it to job analyst
    • For new jobs – Questionnaire is normally sent to manager supervising the employee in the new job
    • Job being analyzed is vacant but is duplicated in another part of the organization – Questionnaire is completed by incumbent in the duplicate job
  • Information can be obtained from large number of employees in a relatively short time period
    • Used when large input is needed and time and cost are limiting factors

4-18

job analysis methods questionnaires1
Job Analysis Methods – Questionnaires
  • Major Disadvantages of Questionnaire Method
    • Misinterpretation of information by respondent or analyst
    • Time-consuming and expensive to develop
  • A popular variation is to have incumbent write an actual description of the job, subject to approval of immediate supervisor
    • Advantage
      • Incumbent is often the person most knowledgeable about the job
      • Helps to identify any differences in incumbent’s and manager’s perceptions about job

4-19

job analysis methods questionnaires2
Job Analysis Methods – Questionnaires
  • Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) – Highly specialized instrument for analyzing any job in terms of employee activities
    • Uses six major categories of employee activities
    • Total of 194 descriptors, called job elements, describe the six categories in detail
    • Using a five-point scale, one can analyze each description for the degree to which it applies to the job
  • Primary advantage
    • Can be used to analyze almost any type of job
    • It is relatively easy to use
  • Major disadvantage
    • The sheer length of questionnaire

4-20

job analysis methods questionnaires3
Job Analysis Methods – Questionnaires
  • Management Position Description Questionnaire (MPDQ) – Highly structured questionnaire designed specifically for analyzing managerial jobs
    • Contains 208 items relating to managerial responsibilities, restrictions, demands, and other miscellaneous position characteristics
    • These items are grouped under the 13 categories
    • Requires analyst to check whether each item is appropriate to job being analyzed

4-23

job analysis methods functional job analysis
Job Analysis Methods – Functional Job Analysis
  • Developed by Employment and Training Administration of Department of Labor
    • Uses standardized statements and terminology to describe content of jobs
    • Collects detailed task statements and rates them according to function level or function orientation
      • Function level – Describes how an employee interacts with data, people, and things
      • Function orientation – Describes amount of time (in percentages) employees spends on tasks of each functional level
    • Each task statement is analyzed and rated to determine skills needed to perform task it describes
    • Results in position-specific information about work being performed and standardized information about both work and person performing the work

4-25

occupational information network o net
Occupational Information Network (O*NET)
  • Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), that described over 12,000 jobs became obsolete and inefficient in early 1990s
    • Provided very job specific and dated information in many cases
    • Did not provide for any type of cross-job comparisons for job similarities and differences
    • Did not directly identify what characteristics employees needed to perform the job or under what conditions job was performed
  • To overcome these problems, the U.S. Department of Labor developed a new system called the occupational information network (O*NET)
    • United States’ primary source of occupational information

4-26

occupational information network o net1
Occupational Information Network (O*NET)
  • O*NET database – Comprehensive online database of employee attributes and job characteristics
    • Provides definitions and concepts for describing employee attributes and workplace requirements that can be broadly understood
    • Using comprehensive terms to describe KSAs, it can accommodate rapidly changing job requirements
    • Continually updated by surveying a broad range of employees from each occupation – Done every five years
    • Content model – Encapsulates key features of an occupation into a standardized, measurable set of variables called “descriptors”
  • O*NET-SOC taxonomy – Identifies existing work occupations
    • Includes 949 occupational titles, 812 of which have data collected from job incumbents or occupation experts

4-27

the ada and job analysis
The ADA and Job Analysis
  • “Qualified individuals with disabilities” – Persons who have a disability and meet the skill, education, experience, and other job-related requirements of position held or desired and can perform essential functions of the position with or without reasonable accommodation
    • Requires identification of essential functions of each job and a reasonable accommodation to disabilities of qualified individual
  • Essential job function – One that is fundamental to successful performance of the job
  • Marginal job functions may be performed at certain times but are incidental to main purpose of the job
    • A job function is considered marginal if its performance is a matter of convenience and not a necessity

4-29

the ada and job analysis1
The ADA and Job Analysis
  • Reasonable accommodation means the employer may be required to alter conditions of a particular job so as to enable the candidate to perform all essential functions
  • An employer cannot be required to make an accommodation that causes undue hardship for the employer
  • Undue hardship refers to any accommodation that
    • Would be unduly costly, substantial or disruptive
    • Would fundamentally alter the nature or operation of business

4-30

potential problems with job analysis
Potential Problems with Job Analysis
  • Top management support is missing
  • Only a single means and source are used for gathering data
  • Supervisor and jobholder do not participate in design of job analysis procedure
  • No training or motivation exists for jobholders
  • Employees are not allowed sufficient time to complete the analysis
  • Activities may be distorted
  • Participants fail to critique the job

4-32

job design
Job Design
  • Process of structuring work and designating specific work activities of an individual or group of individuals to achieve certain organizational objectives
  • Job design process are divided into these phases
    • Specification of individual tasks – What different tasks must be performed?
    • Specification of the method of performing each task – Specifically, how will each task be performed?
    • Combination of individual tasks into specific jobs to be assigned to individuals – How will the different tasks be grouped to form jobs?
  • Phases 1, 3 determine content of job
  • Phase 2 indicates precisely how job is to be performed

4-33

job design1
Job Design
  • Goal of job design – Develop work assignments that meet requirements of the organization and technology, and that satisfy personal and individual requirements of jobholder
    • Key to successful job design is to balance requirements of organization and jobholder
  • Prevailing practice in designing jobs was to focus almost entirely on simplifying tasks to be undertaken
    • Usually resulted in making jobs as specialized as possible
    • Job specialization has its advantages, but can result in boredom and even degradation of jobholder

4-34

job scope and job depth
Job Scope and Job Depth
  • Job scope – Number and variety of tasks performed by jobholder
    • In a job with narrow scope, jobholder performs a few different task and repeats them frequently
    • Can result in more errors and lower quality
  • Job depth – Freedom of jobholders to plan and organize their own work, work at their own pace, and move around and communicate
    • Its lack can create job dissatisfaction, tardiness, absenteeism, and even sabotage
  • A job can be high in job scope and low in job depth, or vice versa

4-36

sociotechnical approach to job design
Sociotechnical Approach to Job Design
  • Its thrust is that both the technical system and the accompanying social system should be considered when designing jobs
    • Jobs need to be designed by taking a holistic, or systems, view of the entire job situation, including its physical and social environment
    • The approach is situational
  • Requires job designer to consider role of employees in the sociotechnical system, nature of tasks performed, and autonomy of work group
  • Has been applied in many countries under headings such as “autonomous work groups,” “Japanese-style work groups,” or employee involvement (EI) teams

4-37

using sociotechnical approach to create guidelines to designing jobs
Using Sociotechnical Approach to Create Guidelines to Designing Jobs
  • Job needs to be reasonably demanding for the individual in terms other than sheer endurance, yet provide some variety (not necessarily novelty)
  • Employees need to be able to learn on the job and to continue learning
  • Employees need some minimum area of decision making that they can call their own
  • Employees need some minimal degree of social support and recognition in the workplace
  • Employees need to be able to relate what they do and what they produce to their social lives
  • Employees need to believe that the job leads to some sort of desirable future

4-38

the physical work environment
The Physical Work Environment
  • The physical work environment should allow for normal lighting, temperature, ventilation, and humidity
    • Baffles acoustical wall materials, sound absorbers, soothing colors, limiting exposure to less-than-ideal physical conditions to short periods are measures employers can take
  • Mental and psychological impacts of work environment to be considered when designing jobs
  • Implementation of Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) in 1970 magnified safety concerns
    • Specifies federal safety guidelines that all organizations in United States must follow

4-39

flextime
Flextime
  • Allows employees to choose, within certain limits, when they start and end their workday
    • Organization defines a core period
    • Some allow varied hours worked each day, as long as a specified weekly total is met
    • Advantages
      • Allows employees to accommodate different lifestyles and schedules
      • Allows employees to avoid rush hours, having less absenteeism and tardiness
      • Allows employers an edge in recruiting new employees and in retaining hard-to-find qualified employees
      • May result in an increase in productivity
    • Disadvantages
      • Can create communication and coordination problems for supervisors and managers

4-40

telecommuting
Telecommuting
  • The practice of working at home or while traveling and being able to interact with the office
    • Information technology has aided its spurt
    • Advantages
      • Less travel time and travel expenses, avoiding rush hour
      • Avoiding distractions at office
      • Being able to work flexible hours
    • Disadvantages
      • Insurance concerns relating to health and safety of employees working at home
      • Lack of professional and social environment of workplace
      • Some state and local laws restrict just what work can be done at home
    • Recent evidence shows that when given a choice, employees prefer a mix of working part-time from home and part-time in office

4-41

job sharing
Job Sharing
  • Two or more part-time individuals perform a job that would normally be held by one full-time person
    • Can be in the form of equally shared responsibilities, split duties, or a combination of both
    • Especially attractive to people who want to work, but not full-time
    • From organization’s viewpoint, job sharing aids in retention of valuable employees
    • A critical factor is how benefits are handled – Often benefits are prorated between part-time employees
    • Some organizations allow job-sharing employees to purchase full health insurance by paying the difference between their prorated benefit and the premium for a full-time employee

4-42

condensed workweek
Condensed Workweek
  • Number of hours worked per day is increased and number of days in the workweek is decreased
    • Typically done by having employees work 10 hours per day for four days per week (known as 4/40)
    • Other variations include reducing total hours worked to 36 or 38 hours
    • Advantages
      • Lower absenteeism and tardiness
      • Less start-up time
      • More time available for employees to take care of personal business
    • Disadvantages
      • Fatigue that often accompanies longer hours

4-43

contingent workers
Contingent Workers
  • The U.S. Labor Department’s Bureau of Labor Statistics separates contingent workers into
    • Independent contractors and on-call workers, who are called to work only when needed
    • Temporary or short-term workers
  • Reasons that organizations use contingent workers include
    • Seasonal fluctuations, and project-based work
    • Desire to acquire skill sets not available in the normal employee
    • Population, hiring freezes, and rapid growth
  • Advantages
    • Flexibility for dealing with fluctuating product or service demand
    • Increasing workplace diversity
    • Determining potential as a future full-time employee
    • Providing skills organization doesn’t have in-house

4-44

contingent workers challenges
Contingent Workers – Challenges
  • Management issues
    • Who manages different contingent workers and what role does HR play?
  • Tracking and reporting
    • How do contingents fit into different HR system such as payroll?
  • Compensation
    • How are contingents compensated compared to other employees?
  • Retention
    • Since most contingents don’t receive benefits they can be hard to retain
  • Attitude and work quality
    • Most contingents do not share same degree of commitment as other employees

4-45

contingent workers challenges1
Contingent Workers – Challenges
  • Orientation and training
    • Orientation and training can be difficult to schedule because of scheduling conflicts with other jobs
  • Legal issues
    • Contingent workers must meet legal definition of “independent contractor” under IRS rules
  • Use or company resources
    • Can include everything from company discounts to participation in company educational programs
  • Physical security
    • Do contingent workers have same access to company facilities as other employees?

4-46

summary of learning objectives
Summary of Learning Objectives
  • Define job analysis and job design
  • Distinguish among a position, a job, and an occupation
  • Describe several common uses of a job analysis
  • Define job description and job specification
  • Identify four frequently used methods of job analysis
  • Discuss why O*NET was developed and summarize what it is
  • Define essential functions and reasonable accommodation as interpreted under the Americans with Disabilities Act

4-47

summary of learning objectives1
Summary of Learning Objectives
  • Identify several problems frequently associated with job analysis
  • Define job scope and job depth and explain their relationship to job design
  • Explain the sociotechnical approach to job design
  • Distinguish among the following types of alternative work schedules: flextime, telecommuting, job sharing, and condensed workweek
  • Define the term contingent worker

4-48

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