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Canada’s Role in Major International Projects: T2K and ILC. Canada-Japan Particle Accelerator Science Symposium Embassy of Canada, Tokyo / July 7, 2009 D. Karlen, University of Victoria and TRIUMF. Particle Physics accelerator laboratories. distributed around the world. DESY. CERN. FNAL.

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Canada’s Role in Major International Projects: T2K and ILC

Canada-Japan Particle Accelerator Science Symposium

Embassy of Canada, Tokyo / July 7, 2009

D. Karlen, University of Victoria and TRIUMF

particle physics accelerator laboratories
Particle Physics accelerator laboratories
  • distributed around the world

DESY

CERN

FNAL

JPARC

Cornell

IHEP

BNL

KEK

SLAC

TJNAF

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

canada in pp collaborations
Canada in PP collaborations
  • Canada has a strong history of partnering in major international PP projects

DESY

  • ZEUS

CERN

FNAL

  • OPAL
  • ATLAS

JPARC

  • CDF
  • D0

Cornell

IHEP

  • T2K

BNL

KEK

SLAC

TJNAF

  • BaBar

For more information: www.ipp.ca

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

canadian facilities
Canadian facilities
  • In related areas of science, Canada provides world-class facilities which attract international research teams
    • TRIUMF – radioactive ion beams
    • SNOlab – deep underground laboratory for neutrino and dark matter experiments

TRIUMF

SNOlab

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

canada in international pp projects
Canada in international PP projects
  • Canada has a modest size research community in Particle Physics
    • 250 subatomic physics faculty/staff
  • To maximize Canadian impact:
    • focus on a limited number of projects
    • build large teams that work together
  • Project selection
    • long term planning through community consensus
    • national funding for “projects” not for “groups”
    • funding decisions by international peer review, based on science and strength of team

In 2006, major funding for the

T2K/Canada project was secured

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

t2k experiment
T2K experiment
  • Scientific objective: to uncover the mysterious nature of neutrinos
    • in particular: understand the way in which they change their identity from one kind to another(known as “oscillation”)
  • Neutrinos (n): “ghost-like” particles
    • everywhere (300/cc)
    • can pass through walls (or the earth!)
      • very difficult to see
    • produced in nuclear reactions
    • very light – generally travel near the speed of light

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

neutrino oscillations
Neutrino oscillations
  • Discovered by experiments studying neutrinos from extraterrestrial sources:
    • Super Kamiokande (in Japan) was used to study neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere

50 ktonH20

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

neutrino oscillations1
Neutrino oscillations
  • The effect was confirmed by the SNO experiment (in Canada) that studied neutrinos produced in the Sun

1 ktonD20

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

t2k experiment1
T2K experiment
  • Technique:
    • produce a pure beam of neutrinos (one type and with the same energy) and see what fraction change into a different type when observed at a later time
  • Challenges:
    • producing an intense neutrino beam (so that a reasonable number can be detected)
    • measuring the properties of the neutrinos at the time of production
    • measuring the properties of the neutrinos after they have had a chance to oscillate

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

t2k experiment2
T2K experiment

Super

Kamiokande

  • The new J-PARC facility is used to produce the intenseneutrino beam
  • Super Kamiokande is usedto measure the neutrinos after they travel 295 km through the earth (in 0.001 s)
  • A new detector complex isunder construction tomeasure the neutrinos rightafter they are produced

n

295 km

n

ND280detector

J-PARC

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

t2k experiment3
T2K experiment
  • Neutrino productionand near detectors

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

t2k experiment canada s role
T2K experiment – Canada’s role
  • proton beam

remote manipulator system

proton monitor stack

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

t2k experiment canada s role1
T2K experiment – Canada’s role
  • proton beam
    • OTR monitor – just infront of target

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

t2k experiment canada s role2
T2K experiment – Canada’s role
  • Near detector tracker

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

t2k near detector tracker
T2K near detector tracker
  • Canada has led the design and construction of the tracker to measure beam energy and composition:
    • 2 active neutrino targets (FGDs)
    • 3 gaseous time projection chambers (TPCs)

2.5 m

2.5 m

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

fine grained detectors fgds
Fine grained detectors (FGDs)
  • Consist of 8000 special plastic barsthat produce a small amount of light when a neutrino interacts
    • light detected by miniature photosensorscalled MPPCs (Hamamatsu) provided byKyoto University
      • first deployment of this new technology

FGD1 at J-PARC

FGD1 at TRIUMF

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

time projection chambers tpcs
Time projection chambers (TPCs)
  • A 3D “digital camera” that images the products of the neutrino interactions in the FGDs
    • first deployment of micropatternTPC technology

TPC0 at TRIUMF

TPC0 at J-PARC

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

tpc images
TPC images
  • Tests with cosmic rays at TRIUMF

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

canadian t2k team
Canadian T2K team
  • TRIUMF and 6 University groups
    • University of Victoria, University of British Columbia, University of Alberta, University of Regina, University of Toronto, York University
      • 11 TRIUMF physicists
      • 9 University faculty
      • 25 staff
      • 10 postdocs
      • 11 graduate students
    • makes up about 15% of the T2K collaboration
    • Canada was the first foreign partner of T2K and the only nation to sign the original Letter of Intent

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

t2k collaboration
T2K collaboration
  • Photo from inaugural collaboration meeting in January 2004
    • now – more than 400 collaborators, from 65 institutes in 12 countries

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

t2k timeline
T2K timeline
  • Schedule from approval to operation much shorter than most accelerator Particle Physics experiments

today

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

  • approval in Japan
  • ND280 conceptual design
  • Canadian funding approved

Construction in Canada

  • successful beam start
  • start of experimental program

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

looking into the future
Looking into the future
  • The future direction of neutrino research will be guided by the outcomes of T2K
    • possibly a second phase for T2K with even more intense neutrino beams
  • For particle physics as a whole, a consensus in its future direction emerged:
    • high energy proton-proton collider (LHC at CERN)
    • high energy electron-positron collider (ILC)
    • guided by the outcomes of the LEP program at CERN
      • Canada and Japan were major partners in the OPAL experiment at LEP, and are partnering in the ATLAS experiment at LHC

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

slide23
ILC
  • Scientific objective: to uncover new laws of nature
    • in particular the way that particles attain mass and the laws that give rise to hidden matter/energy in our Universe
  • Technique: produce new forms of matter by colliding electrons and positrons at the highest possible energies
    • circular colliders are impractical for the energy required – a linear collider is the only option

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

slide24
ILC
  • Accelerator and particle physicists around the world are working together to complete the design of the ILC and its detectors

26 km LEP ring at CERN

30 km ILC – artist’s conception

courtesy CERN

courtesy KEK

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

ilc and canada
ILC and Canada
  • In Canada the initial ILC R&D focus has been on detector technology
    • in particular: micropattern TPCs were developed in this research program – now being deployed in T2K
    • ILC detector R&D work underway in global collaborations
    • The LCTPC group (Japan,Canada, US, and Europe)are constructing andtesting a large prototypemicropattern TPC.
      • magnet provided by Japan

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

ilc and canada1
ILC and Canada
  • Recently Canada has become involved in ILC accelerator technology R&D
    • focus area: superconducting RF cavities used to accelerate the ILC beams
  • Our funding request to build a low-energy, high-current electron accelerator at TRIUMF was approved last month
    • the accelerator will use the ILC cavity design and qualify Canadianindustry for ILC cavity production

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

ilc and canada2
ILC and Canada
  • With this new accelerator project, Canada will develop expertise in ILC accelerator technology
  • At the same time the new accelerator will
    • expand the science program at TRIUMF, by providing more radioactive isotope beams (produced through photo-fission) for existing experiments that study fundamental nuclear science and materials science
    • act as a demonstration machine for the production of medical isotopes that are currently produced withaging nuclear reactors

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

summary
Summary
  • Through partnerships, Canada plays significant roles in many international research projects
    • T2K and ILC are just 2 examples
  • These partnerships benefit Canada and the other nations involved:
    • sharing knowledge
    • cooperative development of future technologies
    • enhanced opportunities for our students
  • I look forward to continued Canada/Japan collaboration on T2K and on the ILC

Canada\'s Role in T2K and ILC

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