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Canada’s Role in Major International Projects: T2K and ILC. Canada-Japan Particle Accelerator Science Symposium Embassy of Canada, Tokyo / July 7, 2009 D. Karlen, University of Victoria and TRIUMF. Particle Physics accelerator laboratories. distributed around the world. DESY. CERN. FNAL.

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Canada’s Role in Major International Projects: T2K and ILC

Canada-Japan Particle Accelerator Science Symposium

Embassy of Canada, Tokyo / July 7, 2009

D. Karlen, University of Victoria and TRIUMF


Particle physics accelerator laboratories
Particle Physics accelerator laboratories

  • distributed around the world

DESY

CERN

FNAL

JPARC

Cornell

IHEP

BNL

KEK

SLAC

TJNAF

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


Canada in pp collaborations
Canada in PP collaborations

  • Canada has a strong history of partnering in major international PP projects

DESY

  • ZEUS

CERN

FNAL

  • OPAL

  • ATLAS

JPARC

  • CDF

  • D0

Cornell

IHEP

  • T2K

BNL

KEK

SLAC

TJNAF

  • BaBar

For more information: www.ipp.ca

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


Canadian facilities
Canadian facilities

  • In related areas of science, Canada provides world-class facilities which attract international research teams

    • TRIUMF – radioactive ion beams

    • SNOlab – deep underground laboratory for neutrino and dark matter experiments

TRIUMF

SNOlab

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


Canada in international pp projects
Canada in international PP projects

  • Canada has a modest size research community in Particle Physics

    • 250 subatomic physics faculty/staff

  • To maximize Canadian impact:

    • focus on a limited number of projects

    • build large teams that work together

  • Project selection

    • long term planning through community consensus

    • national funding for “projects” not for “groups”

    • funding decisions by international peer review, based on science and strength of team

In 2006, major funding for the

T2K/Canada project was secured

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


T2k experiment
T2K experiment

  • Scientific objective: to uncover the mysterious nature of neutrinos

    • in particular: understand the way in which they change their identity from one kind to another(known as “oscillation”)

  • Neutrinos (n): “ghost-like” particles

    • everywhere (300/cc)

    • can pass through walls (or the earth!)

      • very difficult to see

    • produced in nuclear reactions

    • very light – generally travel near the speed of light

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


Neutrino oscillations
Neutrino oscillations

  • Discovered by experiments studying neutrinos from extraterrestrial sources:

    • Super Kamiokande (in Japan) was used to study neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere

50 ktonH20

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


Neutrino oscillations1
Neutrino oscillations

  • The effect was confirmed by the SNO experiment (in Canada) that studied neutrinos produced in the Sun

1 ktonD20

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


T2k experiment1
T2K experiment

  • Technique:

    • produce a pure beam of neutrinos (one type and with the same energy) and see what fraction change into a different type when observed at a later time

  • Challenges:

    • producing an intense neutrino beam (so that a reasonable number can be detected)

    • measuring the properties of the neutrinos at the time of production

    • measuring the properties of the neutrinos after they have had a chance to oscillate

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


T2k experiment2
T2K experiment

Super

Kamiokande

  • The new J-PARC facility is used to produce the intenseneutrino beam

  • Super Kamiokande is usedto measure the neutrinos after they travel 295 km through the earth (in 0.001 s)

  • A new detector complex isunder construction tomeasure the neutrinos rightafter they are produced

n

295 km

n

ND280detector

J-PARC

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


T2k experiment3
T2K experiment

  • Neutrino productionand near detectors

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


T2k experiment canada s role
T2K experiment – Canada’s role

  • proton beam

remote manipulator system

proton monitor stack

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


T2k experiment canada s role1
T2K experiment – Canada’s role

  • proton beam

    • OTR monitor – just infront of target

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


T2k experiment canada s role2
T2K experiment – Canada’s role

  • Near detector tracker

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


T2k near detector tracker
T2K near detector tracker

  • Canada has led the design and construction of the tracker to measure beam energy and composition:

    • 2 active neutrino targets (FGDs)

    • 3 gaseous time projection chambers (TPCs)

2.5 m

2.5 m

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


Fine grained detectors fgds
Fine grained detectors (FGDs)

  • Consist of 8000 special plastic barsthat produce a small amount of light when a neutrino interacts

    • light detected by miniature photosensorscalled MPPCs (Hamamatsu) provided byKyoto University

      • first deployment of this new technology

FGD1 at J-PARC

FGD1 at TRIUMF

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


Time projection chambers tpcs
Time projection chambers (TPCs)

  • A 3D “digital camera” that images the products of the neutrino interactions in the FGDs

    • first deployment of micropatternTPC technology

TPC0 at TRIUMF

TPC0 at J-PARC

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


Tpc images
TPC images

  • Tests with cosmic rays at TRIUMF

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


Canadian t2k team
Canadian T2K team

  • TRIUMF and 6 University groups

    • University of Victoria, University of British Columbia, University of Alberta, University of Regina, University of Toronto, York University

      • 11 TRIUMF physicists

      • 9 University faculty

      • 25 staff

      • 10 postdocs

      • 11 graduate students

    • makes up about 15% of the T2K collaboration

    • Canada was the first foreign partner of T2K and the only nation to sign the original Letter of Intent

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


T2k collaboration
T2K collaboration

  • Photo from inaugural collaboration meeting in January 2004

    • now – more than 400 collaborators, from 65 institutes in 12 countries

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


T2k timeline
T2K timeline

  • Schedule from approval to operation much shorter than most accelerator Particle Physics experiments

today

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

  • approval in Japan

  • ND280 conceptual design

  • Canadian funding approved

Construction in Canada

  • successful beam start

  • start of experimental program

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


Looking into the future
Looking into the future

  • The future direction of neutrino research will be guided by the outcomes of T2K

    • possibly a second phase for T2K with even more intense neutrino beams

  • For particle physics as a whole, a consensus in its future direction emerged:

    • high energy proton-proton collider (LHC at CERN)

    • high energy electron-positron collider (ILC)

    • guided by the outcomes of the LEP program at CERN

      • Canada and Japan were major partners in the OPAL experiment at LEP, and are partnering in the ATLAS experiment at LHC

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


ILC

  • Scientific objective: to uncover new laws of nature

    • in particular the way that particles attain mass and the laws that give rise to hidden matter/energy in our Universe

  • Technique: produce new forms of matter by colliding electrons and positrons at the highest possible energies

    • circular colliders are impractical for the energy required – a linear collider is the only option

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


ILC

  • Accelerator and particle physicists around the world are working together to complete the design of the ILC and its detectors

26 km LEP ring at CERN

30 km ILC – artist’s conception

courtesy CERN

courtesy KEK

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


Ilc and canada
ILC and Canada

  • In Canada the initial ILC R&D focus has been on detector technology

    • in particular: micropattern TPCs were developed in this research program – now being deployed in T2K

    • ILC detector R&D work underway in global collaborations

    • The LCTPC group (Japan,Canada, US, and Europe)are constructing andtesting a large prototypemicropattern TPC.

      • magnet provided by Japan

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


Ilc and canada1
ILC and Canada

  • Recently Canada has become involved in ILC accelerator technology R&D

    • focus area: superconducting RF cavities used to accelerate the ILC beams

  • Our funding request to build a low-energy, high-current electron accelerator at TRIUMF was approved last month

    • the accelerator will use the ILC cavity design and qualify Canadianindustry for ILC cavity production

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


Ilc and canada2
ILC and Canada

  • With this new accelerator project, Canada will develop expertise in ILC accelerator technology

  • At the same time the new accelerator will

    • expand the science program at TRIUMF, by providing more radioactive isotope beams (produced through photo-fission) for existing experiments that study fundamental nuclear science and materials science

    • act as a demonstration machine for the production of medical isotopes that are currently produced withaging nuclear reactors

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC


Summary
Summary

  • Through partnerships, Canada plays significant roles in many international research projects

    • T2K and ILC are just 2 examples

  • These partnerships benefit Canada and the other nations involved:

    • sharing knowledge

    • cooperative development of future technologies

    • enhanced opportunities for our students

  • I look forward to continued Canada/Japan collaboration on T2K and on the ILC

Canada's Role in T2K and ILC



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